Catalogue


A practical approach to pharmaceutical policy [electronic resource] /
Andreas Seiter.
imprint
Washington, DC : World Bank, c2010.
description
xxi, 215 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
ISBN
0821383868 (alk. paper), 9780821383865 (alk. paper)
format(s)
Book
More Details
added author
imprint
Washington, DC : World Bank, c2010.
isbn
0821383868 (alk. paper)
9780821383865 (alk. paper)
restrictions
Licensed for access by U. of T. users.
contents note
Pharmaceutical policy goals -- Introducing the stakeholders -- Patterns of dysfunction -- Key elements of a successful pharmaceutical policy -- Policy packages to achieve strategic long-term goals -- Factors influencing policy implementation -- Pharmaceutical policy illustrated in country examples -- Pharmaceutical policy outlook.
catalogue key
9392990
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
Reviews
This item was reviewed in:
SciTech Book News, September 2010
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Summaries
Main Description
Pharmaceuticals are an essential component of health care. But for many people in low- and middle-income countries, access to the medicines they need to prevent or treat severe illnesses is limited. Typical problems are lack of availability, costs that exceed the individual "s purchasing power or lack of competent Sagents “ health workers that are well trained to give the correct advice on which medicines to take. Pharmaceutical policy is the part of health policy that aims at addressing these problems and increasing access to safe, effective and affordable medicines for all patients. There are many obstacles against achieving these goals. Such obstacles can arise from financial interests on the side of suppliers and health care providers, who may benefit from charging higher prices and issuing more prescriptions than might be justified from a clinical and economic viewpoint. Or from rogue suppliers trying to introduce low quality or counterfeit drugs into markets with less effective regulation. Also, corruption and ineffective bureaucracies sometimes interfere with well intended programs to offer access to essential medicines for the poor. This book offers policy makers a hands-on approach, tested in the World Bank "s field work in many countries, for assessing the pharmaceutical sector, recognizing typical Spatterns of dysfunction and developing strategies to quickly deal with the most urgent problems while at the same time building a platform for sustainable long term policy. It offers examples from a variety of low- and middle income countries and provides practical assessment tools for policy makers. The book ends with the author "s outlook on future developments in this complex policy field.
Main Description
Pharmaceuticals are an essential component of health care. But for many people in low- and middle-income countries, access to the medicines they need to prevent or treat severe illnesses is limited. Typical problems are lack of availability, costs that exceed the individual's purchasing power or lack of competent agents health workers that are well trained to give the correct advice on which medicines to take. Pharmaceutical policy is the part of health policy that aims at addressing these problems and increasing access to safe, effective and affordable medicines for all patients. There are many obstacles against achieving these goals. Such obstacles can arise from financial interests on the side of suppliers and health care providers, who may benefit from charging higher prices and issuing more prescriptions than might be justified from a clinical and economic viewpoint. Or from rogue suppliers trying to introduce low quality or counterfeit drugs into markets with less effective regulation. Also, corruption and ineffective bureaucracies sometimes interfere with well intended programs to offer access to essential medicines for the poor. This book offers policy makers a hands-on approach, tested in the World Bank's field work in many countries, for assessing the pharmaceutical sector, recognizing typical patterns of dysfunction and developing strategies to quickly deal with the most urgent problems while at the same time building a platform for sustainable long term policy. It offers examples from a variety of low- and middle income countries and provides practical assessment tools for policy makers. The book ends with the author's outlook on future developments in this complex policy field.
Table of Contents
Forewordp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xv
About the Authorp. xvii
Abbreviationsp. xix
Pharmaceutical Policy Goalsp. 1
Pharmaceutical Policy Frameworkp. 3
Parameters for Monitoring the Effect and Progress of Pharmaceutical Reformsp. 6
Referencesp. 10
Introducing the Stakeholdersp. 11
Multinational Research-Based Companiesp. 13
Multinational Generics Companiesp. 18
National Generics Companiesp. 21
Brokersp. 22
Procurement Agentsp. 23
Importers and Agentsp. 24
Wholesalersp. 25
Central Medical Storesp. 26
Retail Pharmacists and Drug Sellersp. 27
Prescribersp. 28
Consumersp. 29
Public Policy Makers: Legislative and Executivep. 30
Regulatory and Executive Agenciesp. 31
Expert Commissions and Advisersp. 32
Civil Society Organizationsp. 32
International Agencies and Donorsp. 33
Public Purchasersp. 35
Payersp. 35
Pharmaceutical Benefit Managersp. 36
Consultantsp. 36
Notesp. 37
Referencesp. 38
Patterns of Dysfunctionp. 39
Inadequate Regulation of Core Pharmaceutical Sector Functionsp. 41
Lack or Misuse of Fundsp. 44
Ineffective or Inefficient Procurementp. 45
Dysfunctional Supply Chainsp. 48
Corruption, Abuse of Public Funds, and Unethical Business Practicesp. 51
Inadequate Incentives for Providers and Policy Makersp. 53
Medicine Prices Perceived as Too Highp. 59
Conflicts between Innovation and Cost Containmentp. 66
Conflicts between Industrial Policy and Public Health Objectivesp. 71
Irrational or Inappropriate Use of Drugsp. 73
A Tool to Assess the Sector and Diagnose Dysfunctionsp. 75
Notesp. 77
Referencesp. 78
Key Elements of a Successful Pharmaceutical Policyp. 81
Ensuring Access to Safe and Effective Drugs through Well Designed Supply Chainsp. 82
Using Purchasing Power to Get Value for Moneyp. 93
Managing the Decision Process on Formulary Inclusionp. 97
Creating Adequate Information Systemsp. 104
Ensuring Rational and Cost-Effective Use of Medicinesp. 107
Securing Adequate Financing and Payment Mechanism for Pharmaceuticalsp. 110
Reconciling Health Policy and Industrial Policy in the Pharmaceutical Sectorp. 113
Ensuring Good Governance of the Sectorp. 117
Notesp. 120
Referencesp. 121
Policy Packages to Achieve Strategic Long-Term Goalsp. 123
Essential Medicines Policyp. 124
Generic Drugs Policyp. 126
Innovation-Friendly Drugs Policyp. 127
Combining Several Policy Models within One Countryp. 128
Notesp. 129
Referencep. 129
Factors Influencing Policy Implementationp. 131
Stakeholder Assessment and Involvementp. 132
Strategies to Neutralize Political Oppositionp. 135
Notep. 137
Referencep. 137
Pharmaceutical Policy Illustrated in Country Examplesp. 139
Ghana: National Health Insurance as a ôGame Changeröp. 139
Lithuania: Dealing with the Effects of the Financial Crisisp. 143
China: Improving Social Protection for the Rural Poorp. 145
Russian Federation: Affordability and Access to Essential Drugsp. 146
Liberia: Building Up after Conflictp. 147
Notesp. 149
Referencesp. 149
Pharmaceutical Policy Outlookp. 151
Regulatory Frameworkp. 151
Drug Pricesp. 153
Financing and Management of Drug Benefitsp. 154
Effect on Markets and Industryp. 155
General Trend: Convergence toward Models That Workp. 158
Referencesp. 159
A Tool to Assess the Pharmaceutical Sector in a Given Countryp. 161
Customized Version of the Assessment Tool (Appendix A) for Use in an Assessment of the Pharmaceutical Sector in Turkeyp. 167
Quantitative Datap. 169
Descriptive Sectionp. 171
Assessment Tool for Government Procurement Agencies in the Health Sector in Indiap. 175
Indexp. 207
Boxes
Example of Target Setting in a Project Aimed at Improving Access to Medicines in a Low-Income Countryp. 8
A Tragedy in Panama, Caused by a Toxic Ingredient in Cough Syrupp. 21
Major Cost Drivers for Ensuring Drug Availability in Health Centers in Lesothop. 50
Fraudulent Abuse of Health Insurance Funds in Germanyp. 53
Example of Price Regulation in Practicep. 62
NICE: Example of an Institution Set Up to Manage the Conflict between Innovation and Cost Containment in Health Carep. 69
Access to Medicines and the TRIPs Agreement in Brazilp. 70
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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