Climate and political climate : environmental disasters in the Medieval Levant /
by Sarah Kate Raphael.
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, c2013.
xi, 211 p. : ill., maps.
9004216561 (Cloth), 9789004216563 (Cloth)
More Details
Leiden ; Boston : Brill, c2013.
9004216561 (Cloth)
9789004216563 (Cloth)
catalogue key
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
Sarah Kate Raphael, Ph.D. (2008), The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel. Currently works as an archaeologists in Jerusalem. She has published articles on the medical Levant and a book, Muslim Fortress in the Levant Between Crusaders and Mongols (Routledge, 2010).
Main Description
The twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the Levant saw a substantial rise in the number of droughts. This coincided with some of the most violent tectonic activity the region had witnessed. Nature, however, could conjure other powerful disasters: swarms of locusts, armies of mice, scorching winds and thick dust storms. The data for this research is drawn from contemporary Arabic and Latin sources. The main aim is to try and determine the long and short-term repercussions of environmental, disasters on the political, military and social affairs in the Levant during the Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. Did environmental disasters spur o binder conflict? This research: examines the most destructive disasters and gradual climate chances within broader historical context. Book jacket.
Table of Contents
List of Figures, Tables and Mapsp. ix
Acknowledgementsp. xiii
Notes on Transliterationp. xv
Abbreviationsp. xvii
Introductionp. 1
Historical Backgroundp. 4
The Geographical Frameworkp. 5
Resources, Environmental Disasters and Conflictp. 6
Droughts and Famines
A Short Survey of Climate in the Levant, Iraq and North Africap. 13
The Definition of Droughtp. 19
Assessing the Severity of Medieval Droughtsp. 21
Agriculture in Greater Syriap. 29
The Agricultural Hinterlands of the Syrian Citiesp. 30
Grain-growing Regions in the Eastern Mediterraneanp. 33
Salination, Soil Erosion and Black Windsp. 40
Animal Husbandry and the Role of Nomadic Tribesp. 44
Drawing the Line: Defending Sedentary Interestsp. 52
Preparing for and Coping with Droughts and Faminesp. 55
Granaries and Storage Conditions: Fortresses in the Levant and their Role as Granariesp. 56
Preparing for and Coping with Droughts among Nomadsp. 68
Rituals, Famine Foods and the Question of Cannibalismp. 69
Droughts and Famines: Social, Military and Political Consequencesp. 73
Conflicts and Peace Treaties Driven by Droughts and Faminesp. 74
1178-1181, the Longest of the Twelfth-Century Droughtsp. 76
The Longest of the Thirteenth-Century Droughtsp. 87
Mega Droughts across the Middle Eastp. 90
The Fourteenth Century: Gradual Changes in the Weatherp. 95
Long and Short-term Relief Programs Initiated by al-Nasir Muhammadp. 97
The End of the Medieval Warm Period in the Levant (?)p. 101
Rare and Unusual Weather Talesp. 106
Earthquakes and the Politics of Mass Destruction
Assessing the Force of Historical Earthquakesp. 115
A Brief Geological Survey of Faults and Plate Tectonics in the Levantp. 118
Twelfth and Early Thirteenth Century Earthquakes and their Impact on Crusader-Muslim Affairsp. 127
I Feel the Earth Move under My Feet: Twelfth Century Earthquakesp. 127
The 1202 Earthquake-A Link in a Series of Peace Treatiesp. 138
Domestic Architecture and Earthquakesp. 143
Raw Materials and Structural Behaviourp. 144
Trial and Error-Some Archaeological Evidence Depicting Changes in Fortress Constructionp. 147
The Citadel of Damascusp. 150
Crac des Chevaliers (Hisn al-Akrad)p. 151
The Round Free Standing Tower at Safadp. 155
The Mamluk Octagonal Towers at al-Subayba and Karakp. 158
The Active Fault below the Crusader Fortress of Vadum Jacobp. 161
Small and Destructive Enemies
The Curse of Insects and Rodents on an Agricultural Based Economyp. 167
Locustsp. 168
Recipes for Disastersp. 172
Waves of Mice and Ratsp. 178
Dearth, Crisis and Violence
Climatic Fluctuations, Political Stability and Military Strengthp. 187
Glossaryp. 195
Bibliographyp. 197
Indexp. 209
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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