Toxicologic biomarkers [electronic resource] /
edited by Anthony P. DeCaprio.
New York : Taylor & Francis, 2006.
xii, 295 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
0824723511 (alk. paper), 9780824723514
More Details
added author
New York : Taylor & Francis, 2006.
0824723511 (alk. paper)
Licensed for access by U. of T. users.
catalogue key
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
Bowker Data Service Summary
Responding to the advances in the use of biomarkers to rapidly, efficiently, and economically evaluate the health effects of chemical entities, this text provides a detailed overview of the theory, development, and practical application of biomarkers in the toxicological, environmental, forensic & pharmaceutical sciences.
Long Description
Responding to the explosion of advances in the use of biomarkers to efficiently, rapidly, and economically evaluate the health effects of chemical entities, this authoritative reference provides a detailed overview of the theory, development, and practical application of biomarkers in the toxicological, environmental, forensic, and pharmaceutical sciences. Compiling the most recent studies on the generation and utilization of biomarkers for toxicant exposure, environmental and human health risk assessment, occupational safety, drug development, and the detection of biological and chemical warfare agents, this guide supplies numerous examples, figures, tables, and comprehensive reference listings within each chapter to provide the reader with an in-depth understanding of the subject.
Table of Contents
Prefacep. iii
Contributorsp. xi
Introduction to Toxicologic Biomarkersp. 1
Introduction and Historical Perspectivep. 1
Definitions and Terminologyp. 5
Toxicologic Biomarkers: Promise and Pitfallsp. 9
Organization of This Bookp. 12
Referencesp. 12
Challenges in the Statistical Analysis of Biomarker Datap. 17
Introductionp. 17
The Importance of Distributional Assumptionsp. 21
Examining the Association Between Predictor and Outcomep. 24
Challenges in the Analysis of Cross-Classified Categorical Datap. 27
Challenges in Comparing Mean Levels of Biomarkers Across Groupsp. 29
Challenges in Using Correlation Coefficients to Analyze Biomarker Datap. 31
Challenges in the Statistical Comparison of Biomarkersp. 33
Concluding Remarksp. 35
Referencesp. 35
Biomarkers of Toxicant Exposurep. 39
Introductionp. 39
Basics of Exposure Estimationp. 40
Biologic Markers (Biomarkers) of Human Exposurep. 42
Uses of Exposure Biomarkersp. 53
Conclusionsp. 58
Referencesp. 58
Biomarkers in Environmental Epidemiologyp. 63
Introductionp. 63
Disease Mechanismsp. 64
The Promises of Molecular Cancer Epidemiology-Exposure, Susceptibility, and Diseasep. 65
Exposure Assessmentp. 66
What to Measurep. 67
Where to Measurep. 69
When to Measurep. 70
Exposure Biomarkers and Appropriate Study-Designp. 71
Tests and Questionsp. 73
Genetic Susceptibilityp. 74
Biological Plausibilityp. 76
Biomarker-Based Classification of Diseasep. 77
Whither Molecular Epidemiology?p. 78
Referencesp. 79
Use of Biomarkers in Health Risk Assessmentp. 85
Introductionp. 85
Biomarkers and the Risk-Assessment Processp. 87
Limitations of Biomarkersp. 98
Conclusionsp. 104
Referencesp. 105
Biomarkers of Toxicant Susceptibilityp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Genetic Polymorphismp. 111
Influence of Metabolic and DNA Repair Geno(Pheno)-Types on Biological Indicators of Genotoxic Riskp. 130
Influence of Metabolic Geno(Pheno)-Types on Adverse Drug Side Effectsp. 133
Referencesp. 138
Identification and Use of Biomarkers in Preclinical Toxicologic Safety Assessmentp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Target Identification and Validation: Identification of Potential Pharmacology-Related Toxicity Biomarkersp. 144
Discovery Lead Optimization: Biomarker Assessment of Pharmacology-Related and Chemical-Related Toxicityp. 146
Preclinical Development: Application and Refinement of Biomarkersp. 153
Conclusions: Use of Biomarker Data for Hazard and Safety Risk Assessmentp. 158
Referencesp. 160
Use of Biomarkers in Clinical Toxicology and Clinical Trials: A Critical Assessment of QTc Interval Prolongation as a Biomarkerp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Conceptual Framework for the Use and Development of Biomarkersp. 166
QT/QTc Interval as a Toxicologic Biomarkerp. 168
Biological Issues with QTc as a Biomarkerp. 170
Regulatory Guidance on the Use of QTc Interval Prolongation as a Biomarkerp. 179
Conclusionsp. 183
Referencesp. 184
Regulatory Guidance and Validation of Toxicologic Biomarkersp. 187
Introductionp. 187
The Critical Path and Guidance Documentsp. 189
Reviewer Training and Standardization in Pharmacogenomics and Toxicogenomicsp. 192
Validation of Genomic Biomarkers of Toxicityp. 194
Selection of Genomic Biomarkers of Toxicity for Validationp. 196
Similarities and Differences in Biomarker Validation Processes Between Regulatory Agenciesp. 196
Referencesp. 199
Use of Biomarkers in Occupational Safety and Healthp. 201
Introductionp. 201
Biomarkers of Exposurep. 202
Biomarkers of Biological Effectp. 203
Biomarkers of Susceptibilityp. 204
Practical Issues in the Application of Biomarkers in Occupational Health Programsp. 205
Specific Examples of Biomarker Application in Occupational Healthp. 208
Summaryp. 215
Referencesp. 215
Toxicogenomic and Toxicoproteomic Approaches for Biomarkersp. 221
Introductionp. 221
Genomics and Proteomicsp. 225
Development of Genomics Tools in Toxicologyp. 227
Statistical and Bioinformatics-Based Analyses of Toxicogenomics Resultsp. 237
Development of Toxicoproteomics as a Biomarkers Toolp. 249
Summaryp. 253
Referencesp. 253
Biomarkers of Chemical Warfare Agentsp. 259
Introductionp. 259
CWA: Definitions and Classificationp. 260
Use of Biomarker Determinations in CWA Researchp. 262
Biomarkers of Specific CWA Exposurep. 263
Summaryp. 269
Referencesp. 269
Applications of Biomarkers in Toxic Tort and Forensic Litigationp. 273
Introductionp. 273
Potential Applications of Biomarkers in Litigationp. 274
Potential Obstacles and Complicationsp. 282
Conclusionp. 287
Referencesp. 287
Indexp. 289
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