Catalogue


Paradigms lost [electronic resource] : learning from environmental mistakes, mishaps, and misdeeds /
Daniel A. Vallero.
imprint
Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, c 2006.
description
xxxii, 563 p. : ill., maps.
ISBN
0750678887 (hard cover : alk. paper)
format(s)
Book
More Details
added author
imprint
Boston : Butterworth-Heinemann, c 2006.
isbn
0750678887 (hard cover : alk. paper)
restrictions
Licensed for access by U. of T. users.
catalogue key
8023028
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
Reviews
Review Quotes
Valleros engaging, accessible prose mostly avoids the stiffness that often pervades books of this type, making it easier to digest the technical context and analysis. Civil Engineering, March 2006
"Vallero's engaging, accessible prose mostly avoids the stiffness that often pervades books of this type, making it easier to digest the technical context and analysis._ - Civil Engineering, March 2006
"Vallero's engaging, accessible prose mostly avoids the stiffness that often pervades books of this type, making it easier to digest the technical context and analysis." - Civil Engineering, March 2006
To find out how to look for other reviews, please see our guides to finding book reviews in the Sciences or Social Sciences and Humanities.
Summaries
Bowker Data Service Summary
Daniel Vallero combines the historical case perspective with credible and sound scientific explanations of key environmetnal disasters. He includes alternative approaches to environmental issues, from preventative measures to contingency plans.
Long Description
Engineers and scientists have made great progress in advancing the understanding of the principles underlying environmental quality and public health. However, all too often, society and the scientific community do not realize the connections between environmental occurrences. In their haste to remedy a situation, they overlook lessons that could be learned to prevent future disasters. Paying attention to the past instructs us about the future. "Paradigms Lost combines the historical case perspective with credible and sound scientific explanations of key environmental disasters and problems. The author sorts through natural disasters and human mistakes from Love Canal, New York to Bhopal, India to provide larger lessons that can be applied by scientists, engineers and public safety officials. The analysis of these events includes viable alternatives for future generations. 7 Includes alternative approaches to environmental issues from preventative measures to contingency plans 7 Richly annotated with sidebars, discussion boxes and generous examples 7 A usable tool for all professionals from lawyers to chemical engineers
Main Description
Engineers and scientists have made great progress in advancing the understanding of the principles underlying environmental quality and public health. However, all too often, society and the scientific community do not fully recognize the connections between environmental occurrences and their potential relevance to "new" environmental problems. In their haste to remedy a situation, experts often overlook the lessons that could be learned to prevent future disasters. Paradigms Lost combines the historical case perspective with credible and sound scientific explanations of key environmental disasters and problems. From London's killer fogs to Love Canal to Bhopal, India to Chernobyl to destructive oil spills to today's emerging problems, this book identifies and analyzes important environmental occurrences to provide scientists, engineers and public safety officials with viable alternatives for future generations. This book goes beyond simply reporting events. It explores the meaning behind each event to explain why events occur, if similar events can be expected in the future, and the scientific basis to explain how events happened. In addition, the author sorts through the many different perspectives, pointing out where science justifies and where it does not support conclusions. He also investigates some issues that are not yet fully understood, including an assessment of the problems on the horizon (genetic engineering, global climate change, persistent, and bioaccumulating toxins, to name a few). Dr. Vallero recently established the Engineering Ethics program at Duke University. This innovative program introduces students to the complex relationships between science, technology and societal demands on the engineer. The lessons learned from the cases in this book are a fundamental part of Duke's preparation of its future engineers to address the ethical dilemmas likely to be encountered during the careers of the next generation engineers. Book jacket.
Main Description
Engineers and scientists have made great progress in advancing the understanding of the principles underlying environmental quality and public health. However, all too often, society and the scientific community do not realize the connections between environmental occurrences. In their haste to remedy a situation, they overlook lessons that could be learned to prevent future disasters. Paying attention to the past instructs us about the future. Paradigms Lost combines the historical case perspective with credible and sound scientific explanations of key environmental disasters and problems. The author sorts through natural disasters and human mistakes from Love Canal, New York to Bhopal, India to provide larger lessons that can be applied by scientists, engineers and public safety officials. The analysis of these events includes viable alternatives for future generations. * Includes alternative approaches to environmental issues from preventative measures to contingency plans * Richly annotated with sidebars, discussion boxes and generous examples from Exxon Valdez and Love Canal to Agent Orange and Bhopal * A usable tool for all professionals from lawyers to chemical engineers
Table of Contents
Preface and Introductionp. xiii
Structure and Emphasisp. xiv
Quality Controlp. xxi
Acknowledgmentsp. xxx
Notes and Commentaryp. xxx
New Science and New Paradigmsp. 1
Lessons Learned: A Case Approach to Environmental Problemsp. 13
MTBE and Cross-Media Transferp. 18
The Incremental Effectp. 19
Failure and Blamep. 21
A Lesson from the Medical Communityp. 31
Professional Accountabilityp. 33
Villain and Victim Statusp. 34
Other Lessons: Risk and Reliabilityp. 37
Environmental Ethics and a New Environmental Ethicp. 38
Sensitivityp. 42
Notes and Commentaryp. 50
Pollution Revisitedp. 55
DDT versus Eco-Colonialism: Trading Risksp. 62
Reliabilityp. 65
Characterizing Pollutantsp. 69
Partitioning to Solids-Sorptionp. 75
Partitioning to the Liquid Phase-Dissolutionp. 80
Partitioning to the Gas Phase-Volatilizationp. 85
Solubility as a Physical and Chemical Phenomenonp. 87
Partitioning to Organic Tissuep. 89
Emissions, Effluents, Releases, Leaks, and Spillsp. 91
Notes and Commentaryp. 92
Key Environmental Events by Mediap. 95
Fluids in the Environment: A Brief Introductionp. 96
Three Major Mediap. 107
Something in the Airp. 109
London Air Pollution and the Industrial Revolutionp. 109
Contaminants of Concern: Sulfur and Nitrogen Compoundsp. 111
Notorious Air Pollution Cases of the Twentieth Centuryp. 118
The Meuse Valley Acid Fogp. 119
Contaminants of Concern: Particulate Matterp. 123
Donora, Pennsylvaniap. 138
Poza Rica, Mexicop. 140
Contaminant of Concern: Hydrogen Sulfidep. 140
London, Englandp. 142
New York Cityp. 144
Toxic Cloudsp. 144
The Bhopal Tragedyp. 144
Preparing for Intentional Toxic Cloudsp. 150
Airshed in the Developing World: Mexico Cityp. 152
Lessons Learnedp. 153
Contaminant of Concern: Photochemical Oxidant Smogp. 154
Notes and Commentaryp. 157
Watershed Eventsp. 163
The Death of Lake Erie: The Price of Progress?p. 163
Eutrophicationp. 164
Cuyahoga River Firep. 168
Lesson Learned: The Need for Regional Environmental Planningp. 168
Spills: Immediate Problem with Long-Term Consequencesp. 174
Solubilityp. 176
Torrey Canyon Tanker Spillp. 179
Santa Barbara Oil Spillp. 183
Exxon Valdez Spill: Disaster Experienced and Disaster Avoidedp. 185
Prestige Oil Spillp. 188
Lessons Learned: Two-Edged Swordsp. 191
Pfiesteria piscicida: Nature Out of Syncp. 191
Lesson Being Learnedp. 193
Notes and Commentaryp. 194
Landmark Casesp. 197
Love Canal, New Yorkp. 198
Hazardous Waste Cleanupp. 200
A Fire that Sparked Controversy: Chester, Pennsylvaniap. 204
Dioxin Contamination of Times Beachp. 213
A Terrifying Discovery: Valley of the Drumsp. 215
Stringfellow Acid Pitsp. 216
The March Continuesp. 219
Lessons Learnedp. 219
Failure to Grasp the Land Ethicp. 219
Disasters: Real and Perceivedp. 226
"Cancer Alley" and Vinyl Chloridep. 232
Bioaccumulation and Its Influence on Riskp. 234
The Kepone Tragedyp. 235
Biological Responsep. 237
Organic versus Inorganic Toxicantsp. 240
Pesticides and Sterilityp. 241
Jersey City Chromiump. 244
Radioisotopesp. 246
Radiation Poisoning in Goiania, Brazilp. 247
Factors of Safetyp. 248
Small Numbers and Rare Eventsp. 250
Exposure Estimationp. 255
Risk-Based Cleanup Standardsp. 263
The Drake Chemical Company Superfund Site: A Risk-Based Casep. 265
Risk Assessment: The First Stepp. 268
Notes and Commentaryp. 269
By Way of Introductionp. 275
Asian Shore Crabp. 286
Zebra Mussel Invasion of the Great Lakesp. 290
Lesson Learned: Need for Meaningful Ecological Risk Assessmentsp. 292
Notes and Commentaryp. 295
Environmental Swords of Damoclesp. 297
The Tragedy of the Commonsp. 298
Global Climate Changep. 299
The Greenhouse Effectp. 300
Persistent, Bioaccumulating Toxicantsp. 302
The Inuit and Persistent Organic Pollutantsp. 302
Extrinsic Factorsp. 305
Persistencep. 314
Endocrine Disrupting Compoundsp. 316
Lake Apopka: A Natural Experimentp. 316
Genetic Engineeringp. 320
Nuclear Fissionp. 320
Meltdown at Chernobylp. 321
Terrorismp. 325
Ecosystem Habitat Destructionp. 326
Lessons Learnedp. 327
The Butterfly Effectp. 332
Notes and Commentaryp. 334
Other Paradigmsp. 337
Dropping Acid and Heavy Metal Reactionsp. 339
Case of the Negative pH: Iron Mountain, Californiap. 340
Acid Mine Drainagep. 346
Acid Precipitationp. 348
Lead: The Ubiquitous Elementp. 351
Coeur d'Alene Valley and the Bunker Hill Lead Smelterp. 352
Mercury: Lessons from Minamatap. 353
Arsenic Tragedy in Bangledeshp. 356
Asbestos in Australiap. 360
Notes and Commentaryp. 364
Spaceship Earthp. 367
Changes in the Global Climatep. 368
Carbon Dioxidep. 375
Methanep. 377
Nitrous Oxidep. 377
Halocarbons and Other Gasesp. 378
Land Use and Forestryp. 378
Threats to the Stratospheric Ozone Layerp. 379
Coral Reef Destructionp. 380
Syllogisms for Coral Reef Destructionp. 383
Notes and Commentaryp. 385
Myths and Ideology: Perception versus Realityp. 389
Solid Waste: Is It Taking over the Planet?p. 389
Alar and Applesp. 392
Parent versus Progenyp. 393
Agent Orange: Important If Truep. 404
The Snail Darter: A Threat to the Endangered Species Act?p. 407
Seveso Plant Disasterp. 410
Poverty and Pollutionp. 413
Notes and Commentaryp. 415
Just Environmental Decisions, Pleasep. 419
Environmental Justicep. 420
How Can Engineers Best Manage Risks in a Changing Environment?p. 425
Optimization in Environmental Risk Managementp. 427
Precautionary Principle and Factors of Safety in Risk Managementp. 444
Market versus Non-Market Valuation: Uncle Joe the Junk Manp. 446
The Warren County, North Carolina, PCB Landfillp. 452
The Orange County, North Carolina, Landfillp. 459
If It Does Occur, It Is Not Badp. 463
If It Does Occur and It Is Bad, It Is Not Racially Motivatedp. 464
Is Environmentalism a Middle-Class Value?p. 465
Habitat for Humanityp. 467
Carver Terrace, Texasp. 469
West Dallas Lead Smelterp. 471
Lessons Applied: The Environmental Justice Movementp. 471
Environmental Justice and the Catalytic Converterp. 473
Notes and Commentaryp. 475
What Is Next?p. 481
Bottom Lines and Top of the Head Guessesp. 483
The Future of Environmental Science and Engineeringp. 487
The Systematic Approachp. 487
New Thinkingp. 491
The Morning Shows the Dayp. 498
Notes and Commentaryp. 498
Equilibriump. 503
Government Reorganizations Creating the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrationp. 511
Reliability in Environmental Decision Makingp. 517
Principles of Environmental Persistencep. 521
Cancer Slope Factorsp. 527
Equations for Calculating Lifetime Average Daily Dose (LADD) for Various Routes of Exposurep. 535
Characterizing Environmental Riskp. 539
Risk-Based Contaminant Cleanup Examplep. 543
Shannon Weiner Index Examplep. 547
Useful Conversions in Atmospheric Chemistryp. 551
Indexp. 553
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