Catalogue


The chemistry of fungi /
James R. Hanson.
imprint
Cambridge, UK : Royal Society of Chemistry, c2008.
description
xi, 221 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN
0854041362 (hbk.), 9780854041367 (hbk.)
format(s)
Book
Holdings
Subjects
More Details
imprint
Cambridge, UK : Royal Society of Chemistry, c2008.
isbn
0854041362 (hbk.)
9780854041367 (hbk.)
contents note
Fungi and the development of microbiological chemistry -- The chemistry of growing fungi -- Fungal metabolites derived from amino acids -- Polyketides from fungi -- Terpenoid fungal metabolites -- Fungal metabolites derived from the citric acid cycle -- Pigments and odours of fungi -- The chemistry of some fungal diseases of plants -- Mycotoxins -- Fungi as reagents.
catalogue key
6647398
 
Includes bibliographical references (p. 190-203) and index.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
James R. Hanson, Department of Chemistry, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK
Reviews
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"This will be a useful book for chemists contemplating a career in microbial chemistry as well as for medicinal chemists."
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Summaries
Back Cover Copy
Fungi occupy an important place in the natural world. As non-photosynthetic organisms, they obtain their nutrients from the degradation of organic material. They use many of their secondary metabolites to secure a place in a competitive natural environment and to protect themselves from predation. The structural diversity of fungal metabolites, the unifying role of biosynthetic studies in rationalising these and the growing ecological understanding of the role of fungal metabolites has attracted the interest of chemists for many years. In addition, a number of aspects of modern biotechnology are now associated with fungi and their metabolites and the production of pharmaceuticals creating a whole new sphere of interest in this area. The aim of this book is the introduce chemists to the range of structures of fungal metabolites. The book describes the progress in the elucidation of the structures of fungal metabolites from chemical degradation to spectroscopic analysis and to show how these diverse structures may be rationalised in biosynthesic terms. There are separate chapters on laboratory methods for cultivating fungi, the role of fungal metabolites as phytotoxins and mycotoxins and the use of fungi in biotransformations. The Chemistry of Fungi will be particularly useful to anybody about to embark on a career in chemical microbiology by providing an overall perspective of fungal metabolites as well as an essential reference tool for more general chemists.
Description for Reader
Fungi occupy an important place in the natural world, as non-photosynthetic organisms, they obtain their nutrients from the degradation of organic material. They use many of their secondary metabolites to secure a place in a competitive natural environment and to protect themselves from predation. The diverse structures, biosyntheses and biological activities of fungal metabolites have attracted chemists for many years. Fungi are ubiquitous and their activities affect many aspects of our daily lives whether it be as sources of pharmaceuticals and food or as spoilage organisms and the causes of diseases in plants and man. The chemistry of the fungi involved in these activities has been the subject of considerable study particularly over the last fifty years. Although their ramifications can be large as in the spread of plant diseases, the quantities of the metabolites which could be isolated precluded much chemical work until the advent of spectroscopic methods. Whereas many natural products derived from plants were isolated prior to the 1960s on a scale which permitted extensive chemical degradation, this was rarely the case for fungal metabolites. This book is an introduction to the chemistry of fungal metabolites. The aim is to illustrate within the context of fungal metabolites, the historical progression from chemical to spectroscopic methods of structure elucidation, the development in biosynthetic studies from establishing sequences and mechanisms to chemical enzymology and genetics and the increasing understanding of the biological roles of natural products.The book begins with a historical introduction followed by a description of the general chemical features which contribute to the growth of fungi. There are many thousands of fungal metabolites whose structures are known and the book does not aim to list them all as there are databases to fulfill this role. The book's aim is to describe some of the more important metabolites classified according to their biosynthetic origin. Biosynthesis provides a unifying feature underlying the diverse structures of fungal metabolites and the chapters covering this area begin with a general outline of the relevant biosynthetic pathway before presenting a detailed description of particular metabolites. Investigations into these biosyntheses have utilized many subtle isotopic labelling experiments and compounds that are fungal pigments and those which are distinctive metabolites of the more conspicuous Basidiomycetes are treated separately. Many fungal metabolites are involved in the interactions of fungi with plants and others are toxic to man and some of these are described in further chapters. Fungi have the ability to transform chemicals in ways which can complement conventional reactions and the use of fungi as reagents forms the subject of the final chapter.This book will be particularly useful to anybody about to embark on a career in chemical microbiology by providing an overall perspective of fungal metabolites as well as an essential reference tool for more general chemists.
Bowker Data Service Summary
The aim of this text is to illustrate, within the context of fungal metabolites, the historical progression from chemical to spectroscopic methods of structure elucidation, the development in biosynthetic studies and the increasing understanding of the biological roles of natural products.
Main Description
Fungi occupy an important place in the natural world. As non-photosynthetic organisms, they obtain their nutrients from the degradation of organic material. They use many of their secondary metabolites to secure a place in a competitive natural environment and to protect themselves from predation. The structural diversity of fungal metabolites, the unifying role of biosynthetic studies in rationalising these and the growing ecological understanding of the role of fungal metabolites has attracted the interest of chemists for many years. In addition, a number of aspects of modern biotechnology are now associated with fungi and their metabolites and the production of pharmaceuticals creating a whole new sphere of interest in this area.
Main Description
Fungi occupy an important place in the natural world, as non-photosynthetic organisms, they obtain their nutrients from the degradation of organic material. They use many of their secondary metabolites to secure a place in a competitive natural environment and to protect themselves from predation. The diverse structures, biosyntheses and biological activities of fungal metabolites have attracted chemists for many years. Fungi are ubiquitous and their activities affect many aspects of our daily lives whether it be as sources of pharmaceuticals and food or as spoilage organisms and the causes of diseases in plants and man. The chemistry of the fungi involved in these activities has been the subject of considerable study particularly over the last fifty years. Although their ramifications can be large as in the spread of plant diseases, the quantities of the metabolites which could be isolated precluded much chemical work until the advent of spectroscopic methods. Whereas many natural products derived from plants were isolated prior to the 1960s on a scale which permitted extensive chemical degradation, this was rarely the case for fungal metabolites. This book is an introduction to the chemistry of fungal metabolites. The aim is to illustrate within the context of fungal metabolites, the historical progression from chemical to spectroscopic methods of structure elucidation, the development in biosynthetic studies from establishing sequences and mechanisms to chemical enzymology and genetics and the increasing understanding of the biological roles of natural products. The book begins with a historical introduction followed by a description of the general chemical features which contribute to the growth of fungi. There are many thousands of fungal metabolites whose structures are known and the book does not aim to list them all as there are databases to fulfill this role. The book's aim is to describe some of the more important metabolites classified according to their biosynthetic origin. Biosynthesis provides a unifying feature underlying the diverse structures of fungal metabolites and the chapters covering this area begin with a general outline of the relevant biosynthetic pathway before presenting a detailed description of particular metabolites. Investigations into these biosyntheses have utilized many subtle isotopic labelling experiments and compounds that are fungal pigments and those which are distinctive metabolites of the more conspicuous Basidiomycetes are treated separately. Many fungal metabolites are involved in the interactions of fungi with plants and others are toxic to man and some of these are described in further chapters. Fungi have the ability to transform chemicals in ways which can complement conventional reactions and the use of fungi as reagents forms the subject of the final chapter. This book will be particularly useful to anybody about to embark on a career in chemical microbiology by providing an overall perspective of fungal metabolites as well as an essential reference tool for more general chemists.
Description for Bookstore
This book is an introduction to the chemistry of fungal metabolites. The aim is to illustrate within the context of fungal metabolites, the historical progression from chemical to spectroscopic methods of structure elucidation, the development in biosynthetic studies from establishing sequences and mechanisms to chemical enzymology and genetics and the increasing understanding of the biological roles of natural products. There are separate chapters on laboratory methods for cultivating fungi, the role of fungal metabolites as phytotoxins and mycotoxins and the use of fungi in biotransformations. This book will be particularly useful to anybody about to embark on a career in chemical microbiology by providing an overall perspective of fungal metabolites as well as an essential reference tool for more general chemists.
Back Cover Copy
Fungi occupy an important place in the natural world. As non-photosynthetic organisms, they obtain their nutrients from the degradation of organic material. They use many of their secondary metabolites to secure a place in a competitive natural environment and to protect themselves from predation. The structural diversity of fungal metabolites, the unifying role of biosynthetic studies in rationalising these and the growing ecological understanding of the role of fungal metabolites has attracted the interest of chemists for many years. In addition, a number of aspects of modern biotechnology are now associated with fungi and their metabolites and the production of pharmaceuticals creating a whole new sphere of interest in this area.The aim of this book is the introduce chemists to the range of structures of fungal metabolites. The book describes the progress in the elucidation of the structures of fungal metabolites from chemical degradation to spectroscopic analysis and to show how these diverse structures may be rationalised in biosynthesic terms. There are separate chapters on laboratory methods for cultivating fungi, the role of fungal metabolites as phytotoxins and mycotoxins and the use of fungi in biotransformations. The Chemistry of Fungi will be particularly useful to anybody about to embark on a career in chemical microbiology by providing an overall perspective of fungal metabolites as well as an essential reference tool for more general chemists.
Long Description
This book is an introduction to the chemistry of fungal metabolites. The aim is to illustrate within the context of fungal metabolites, the historical progression from chemical to spectroscopic methods of structure elucidation, the development in biosynthetic studies from establishing sequences and mechanisms to chemical enzymology and genetics and the increasing understanding of the biological roles of natural products.The book begins with a historical introduction followed by a description of the general chemical features which contribute to the growth of fungi. There are many thousands of fungal metabolites whose structures are known and the book does not aim to list them all as there are databases to fulfill this role. The book's aim is to describe some of the more important metabolites classified according to their biosynthetic origin. Biosynthesis provides a unifying feature underlying the diverse structures of fungal metabolites and the chapters covering this area begin with a general outline of the relevant biosynthetic pathway before presenting a detailed description of particular metabolites. Investigations into these biosyntheses have utilized many subtle isotopic labelling experiments and compounds that are fungal pigments and those which are distinctive metabolites of the more conspicuous Basidiomycetes are treated separately. Many fungal metabolites are involved in the interactions of fungi with plants and others are toxic to man and some of these are described in further chapters. Fungi have the ability to transform chemicals in ways which can complement conventional reactions and the use of fungi as reagents forms the subject of the final chapter.
Table of Contents
Fungi and the Development of Microbiological Chemistry
Introductionp. 1
Structure of Fungip. 2
Classification of Fungip. 4
The Fungal Cell Wallp. 5
History of Fungal Metabolitesp. 6
Fungal Metabolites in the Nineteenth Centuryp. 7
Fungal Metabolites 1900-1940p. 8
Fungi in the Antibiotic Era, 1940-1960p. 10
Study of Fungal Plant Diseases 1940-1965p. 12
Impact of Spectroscopic Methods on Structure Elucidationp. 13
Fungal Metabolites 1965-2005p. 13
History of Biosynthetic Studies with Fungip. 15
The Chemistry of Growing Fungi
The Culture Mediump. 18
Laboratory Fermentationp. 20
Isolation of Fungal Metabolitesp. 21
The Stages in a Fermentationp. 23
Utilization of the Constituents of the Mediump. 25
Fungi Growing in the Wildp. 28
Biosynthetic Experimentsp. 29
Fungal Metabolites Derived from Amino Acids
Introductionp. 32
Penicillinsp. 33
Cephalosporinsp. 36
Biosynthesis of [beta]-Lactamsp. 37
Metabolites Containing a Diketopiperazine Ringp. 39
Mycelianamidep. 40
Gliotoxinp. 40
The Cyclopenin-Viridicatin Group of Metabolitesp. 42
Tryptophan-derived Metabolitesp. 42
Glutamic Acid Derivativesp. 44
Fungal Peptidesp. 45
Polyketides from Fungi
Introductionp. 47
Polyketide Biosynthesisp. 48
Triketidesp. 50
Tetraketidesp. 51
6-Methylsalicylic Acidp. 51
Patulin and Penicillic Acidp. 52
Gladiolic Acid and its Relativesp. 55
Tetraketide Tropolonesp. 56
Mycophenolic Acidp. 57
Pentaketidesp. 58
Citrininp. 58
Terreinp. 60
Hepta- and Octaketidesp. 61
Griseofulvinp. 61
Cladosporin (Asperentin)p. 64
Polyketide Lactonesp. 65
Statinsp. 66
Cytochalasinsp. 68
Fatty Acids from Fungip. 68
Polyacetylenes from the Higher Fungip. 70
Terpenoid Fungal Metabolites
Introductionp. 73
Biosynthesis of Fungal Terpenoidsp. 73
Monoterpenoidsp. 76
Sesquiterpenoidsp. 76
Cyclonerodiolp. 77
Helicobasidinp. 78
Trichothecenesp. 78
PR-Toxinp. 81
Botryanesp. 81
Culmorin and Helminthosporalp. 84
Sesquiterpenoids of the Basidiomycetesp. 85
Diterpenoid Fungal Metabolitesp. 93
Virescenosidesp. 94
Rosanesp. 94
Gibberellins and Kaurenolidesp. 97
Aphidicolinp. 101
Pleuromutilinp. 102
Fusicoccins and Cotyleninsp. 102
Sesterterpenoidsp. 104
Fungal Triterpenoids and Steroidsp. 105
Ergosterolp. 106
Fusidane Steroidal Antibioticsp. 107
Viridin, Wortmannin and their Relativesp. 111
Triterpenoids of the Basidiomycetesp. 113
Meroterpenoidsp. 116
Fungal Metabolites Derived from the Citric Acid Cycle
Introductionp. 120
Citric Acid and Related Acidsp. 120
Fungal Tetronic Acidsp. 122
Canadensolide and Avenaciolidep. 123
Nonadridesp. 124
Squalestatinsp. 126
Pigments and Odours of Fungi
Introductionp. 127
Polyketide Fungal Pigmentsp. 128
Fumigatinp. 128
Auroglaucin and Flavoglaucinp. 129
Hydroxyanthraquinone Pigmentsp. 129
Xanthone and Naphthopyrone Pigmentsp. 130
Extended and Dimeric Quinonesp. 131
Fungal Pigments Derived from the Shikimate Pathwayp. 132
Terphenylsp. 132
Pulvinic Acidsp. 133
Some Pigments Containing Nitrogenp. 135
Terpenoid Pigmentsp. 138
Fungal Carotenoidsp. 138
Lichen Substancesp. 140
Odours of Fungip. 142
Organoleptic Components of Mushroomsp. 142
Volatile Fungal Metabolites Containing Sulfurp. 144
The Chemistry of Some Fungal Diseases of Plants
Introductionp. 147
General Chemistry of Plant-Fungal Interactionsp. 148
Chemistry of some Leaf-spot Diseasesp. 149
Botrytis cinereap. 149
Alternaria Leaf-spot Diseasesp. 151
Cercospora Leaf-spot Diseasesp. 153
Diseases Caused by Colletotrichum Speciesp. 154
Fungal Diseases of the Gramineaep. 155
Root-infecting Fungip. 157
Some Fungal Diseases of Treesp. 159
Dutch Elm Diseasep. 159
Eutypa Diebackp. 160
Armillaria melleap. 161
Phytophthora cinnamomip. 162
Silver-leaf Diseasep. 162
Nectria galligena Cankerp. 162
Canker Diseases of Cypressp. 163
Trichoderma Species as Anti-fungal Agentsp. 163
Fungal Diseases of Plants and Global Warmingp. 164
Mycotoxins
Introductionp. 165
Ergotismp. 165
Trichothecenes as Mycotoxinsp. 166
Other Fusarium Toxinsp. 168
Aflatoxinsp. 169
Mycotoxins of Penicillium Speciesp. 171
Poisonous Mushroomsp. 173
Fungi as Reagents
Introductionp. 177
Xenobiotic Transformationsp. 177
Microbial Hydrolysisp. 178
Microbial Redox Reactionsp. 179
Microbiological Hydroxylationp. 180
Biosynthetically-patterned Biotransformationsp. 183
Epiloguep. 188
Further Reading and Bibliographyp. 190
Glossaryp. 204
Subject Indexp. 209
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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