Catalogue


Cultural diversity in health & illness /
Rachael E. Spector.
edition
6th ed.
imprint
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Prentice Hall, c2004.
description
xviii, 375 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
ISBN
0130493791, 9780130493798
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Pearson Prentice Hall, c2004.
isbn
0130493791
9780130493798
catalogue key
6415371
 
Includes bibliographical references (p. 343-363) and index.
A Look Inside
Excerpts
Introduction or Preface
You don't need a masterpiece to get the idea. -Pablo Picasso In 1977 I wrote the first edition ofCultural Diversity in Health and Illnessand have revised it several times since then; this is the sixth edition. The purpose of each edition has been to increase the reader's awareness of the dimensions and complexities involved in caring for people from diverse cultural backgrounds. I wished to share my personal experiences and thoughts concerning the introduction of cultural concepts into the education of health care professionals. The books represented my answers to the questions: "How does one effectively expose a student to cultural diversity?" "How does one examine health care issues and perceptions from a broad social viewpoint?" As I had done in the classroom, I attempted to bring the reader into direct contact with the interaction between providers of care within the North American health care system and the consumers of health care. The staggering issues of health care delivery are explored and contrasted with the choices that people may make in attempting to deal with health care issues. It is now imperative, according to the most recent policies of the Joint Commission of Hospital Accreditation and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, that all health care providers be culturally competent. In this context, cultural competence implies that within the delivery of care the health care provider understands and attends to the total context of the patient's situation; it is a complex combination of knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Yet, How do you really inspire people to hear the content? How do you motivate providers to see the worldview and lived experience of the patient? How do you assist providers to really bear witness to the living conditions and life ways of patients? How do you liberate providers from the burdens of prejudice, xenophobia, the "isms"--racism, ethnocentrism--and the "antis"? It can be argued that the development of cultural competency does not occur in a short encounter with cultural diversity; but that it takes time to develop the skills, knowledge, and attitudes to safely and satisfactorily deliver CulturalCare. Features Free Companion Web site at www.prenhall.com/spector with activities, fill-in-the-blanks, multiple choice questions, web links, and more. Online Course Management Systems.Also available are online companions for schools using course management systems. For more information about adopting an online course management system to accompanyCultural Diversity in Health and Illness, Sixth Editionplease contact your Prentice Hall Health Sales Representative www.prenhall.com/mischtm/rep-locator-fr.html or go to the appropriate websites at cms.prenhall.com/webct/index.html or cms.prenhall.com/blackboard/index.html or cms.prenhall.com/coursecompass Health Traditions Imagery.This edition of the book uses symbolic images to create the linkages from chapter to chapter. The HEALTH (HEALTH, when written this way, is defined as the balance of the person, both within one's being-physical, mental, spiritual-and in the outside world-natural, familial and communal, metaphysical) images were selected to awaken you to the richness of a given heritage and the HEALTH/health beliefs, and practices inherent within both modern and traditional cultures. Guidelines for Developing Cultural Competency.A "map" that passes from broad and general dimensions of health and illness to specific images of traditional HEALTH beliefs and practices; at the personal level, the modern health care delivery level, and within traditional dimensions. Three developmental dimensions: Cultural Foundations--an overview of cultural heritag
First Chapter

You don't need a masterpiece to get the idea.
Pablo Picasso

In 1977 I wrote the first edition ofCultural Diversity in Health and Illnessand have revised it several times since then; this is the sixth edition. The purpose of each edition has been to increase the reader's awareness of the dimensions and complexities involved in caring for people from diverse cultural backgrounds. I wished to share my personal experiences and thoughts concerning the introduction of cultural concepts into the education of health care professionals. The books represented my answers to the questions:

  • "How does one effectively expose a student to cultural diversity?"
  • "How does one examine health care issues and perceptions from a broad social viewpoint?"

As I had done in the classroom, I attempted to bring the reader into direct contact with the interaction between providers of care within the North American health care system and the consumers of health care. The staggering issues of health care delivery are explored and contrasted with the choices that people may make in attempting to deal with health care issues.

It is now imperative, according to the most recent policies of the Joint Commission of Hospital Accreditation and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, that all health care providers be culturally competent. In this context, cultural competence implies that within the delivery of care the health care provider understands and attends to the total context of the patient's situation; it is a complex combination of knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Yet,

  • How do you really inspire people to hear the content?
  • How do you motivate providers to see the worldview and lived experience of the patient? How do you assist providers to really bear witness to the living conditions and life ways of patients?
  • How do you liberate providers from the burdens of prejudice, xenophobia, the "isms"—racism, ethnocentrism—and the "antis"?

It can be argued that the development of cultural competency does not occur in a short encounter with cultural diversity; but that it takes time to develop the skills, knowledge, and attitudes to safely and satisfactorily deliver CulturalCare.

Features

  • Free Companion Web site atwww.prenhall.com/spectorwith activities, fill-in-the-blanks, multiple choice questions, web links, and more.
  • Online Course Management Systems.Also available are online companions for schools using course management systems. For more information about adopting an online course management system to accompanyCultural Diversity in Health and Illness, Sixth Editionplease contact your Prentice Hall Health Sales Representative www.prenhall.com/mischtm/rep-locator-fr.html or go to the appropriate websites at cms.prenhall.com/webct/index.html or cms.prenhall.com/blackboard/index.html or cms.prenhall.com/coursecompass
  • Health Traditions Imagery.This edition of the book uses symbolic images to create the linkages from chapter to chapter. The HEALTH (HEALTH, when written this way, is defined as the balance of the person, both within one's being-physical, mental, spiritual-and in the outside world-natural, familial and communal, metaphysical) images were selected to awaken you to the richness of a given heritage and the HEALTH/health beliefs, and practices inherent within both modern and traditional cultures.
  • Guidelines for Developing Cultural Competency.A "map" that passes from broad and general dimensions of health and illness to specific images of traditional HEALTH beliefs and practices; at the personal level, the modern health care delivery level, and within traditional dimensions.
  • Three developmental dimensions:
  • Cultural Foundations—an overview of cultural heritage and history that serves to illustrate the underlying concepts inherent in the diversity within our society, and basic elements of health and illness.
  • Domains of HEALTH—the worlds of the provider and patient as reflected in broad and general HEALTH and HEALING from a personal perspective to the perspectives of socialization into the allopathic philosophy and health care delivery system.
  • Panoramas of HEALTH—the worlds of traditional HEALTH beliefs and practices among selected populations.
  • Historical Perspectives.An overview of historic sociocultural, public health, and health policy events and medical milestones from 1900 to 2003.

OVERVIEW

Unit I focuses on the background knowledge one must recognize as the foundation for developing cultural competency.

  • Chapter 1 explores the concept of cultural heritage and history and the roles they play in one's perception of health and illness. This exploration is first outlined in general terms: What is culture? How is it transmitted? What is ethnicity? What is religion? How do they affect a given person's health? What major sociocultural events occurred during the life trajectory of a given person that may influence their personal health beliefs and practices?
  • Chapter 2 presents a discussion of the diversity—demographic, immigration, and poverty—that impacts on the delivery of and access to health care. The backgrounds of each of the U.S. Census Bureau's categories of the population, an overview of immigration, and an overview of issues relevant to poverty are presented.
  • Chapter 3 reviews the provider's knowledge of his or her own perceptions, needs, and understanding of health and illness.

Unit II explores the domains of HEALTH, blends them with one's personal heritage, and contrasts them with allopathic philosophy.

  • Chapter 4 introduces the concept of HEALTH and develops the concept in broad and general terms. The HEALTH Traditions Model is presented, as are natural methods of HEALTH restoration.
  • Chapter 5 explores the concept of HEALING and the role that faith plays in the context of HEALING, or magico-religious, traditions. This is an increasingly important issue, which is evolving to a point where the health care provider must have some understanding of this phenomenon.
  • Chapter 6 discusses family heritage and explores personal and familial HEALTH traditions. It includes an array of familial health beliefs and practices shared by people from many different heritages.
  • Chapter 7 focuses on the allopathic health care delivery system and the health care provider culture.

Once the study of each of these components has been completed, Unit III moves on to explore selected population groups in more detail, to portray a panorama of traditional HEALTH and ILLNESS beliefs and practices, and present relevant health care issues.

These pages can neither do full justice to the richness of any one culture nor any one health-belief system. By presenting some of the beliefs and practices and suggesting background reading, however, the book can begin to inform and sensitize the reader to the needs of a given group of people. It can also serve as a model as to how to develop cultural knowledge in populations that are not included.

The Epilogue is devoted to an overall analysis of the book's contents and how best to apply this knowledge in health care delivery, health planning, and health education, for both the patient and the health care professional.

There is so much to be learned. Countless books and articles have now appeared that address these problems and issues. It is not easy to alter attitudes and beliefs or stereotypes and prejudices. Some social psychologists state that it is almost impossible to lose all of one's prejudices, yet alterations can be made. I believe the health care provider must develop the ability to deliver CulturalCare and a sensitivity to personal fundamental values regarding health and illness. With acceptance of one's own values comes the framework and courage to accept the existence of differing values. This process of realization and acceptance can enable the health care provider to be instrumental in meeting the needs of the consumer in a collaborative, safe, and professional manner.

The first edition of this book was the outcome of apromesa—a promise—once made. The promise was made to a group of Black and Hispanic students I taught in a medical sociology course in 1973. In this course, the students wound up being the teachers, and they taught me to see the world of health care delivery through the eyes of the health care consumer rather than through my own well-intentioned eyes. What I came to see I did not always like. I did not realize how much I did not know; I believed I knew a lot. I have held on to thepromesa,and my experiences over the years have been incredible. I have met people and traveled. At all times I have held on to the idea and goal of attempting to help nurses and other providers be aware of and sensitive to the beliefs and needs of their patients.

I know that looking inside closed doors carries with it a risk. I know that people prefer to think that our society is a melting pot and that old beliefs and practices have vanished with an expected assimilation into mainstream North American life. Many people, however, have continued to carry on the traditional customs and culture from their native lands, and health and illness beliefs are deeply entwined within the cultural and social beliefs that people have. To understand health and illness beliefs and practices, it is necessary to see each person in his or her unique sociocultural world.

The shattering events of September 11, 2001, represent in many ways the clarion call for all of us to wake up and hear and listen to the voices of all people. Indeed, the events are symptomatic of Global Polarization in such conflicts as:

  • Traditionalism vs. Modernism
  • Fundamentalism vs. Universalism
  • Heritage vs. Secular
  • Minimalism vs. Excessism
  • Self-Denialism vs. Materialism
  • Fatalism vs. Determinism
  • Allopathy vs. Homeopathy
  • Curing vs. HEALING

Global Polarization is culturally based and seems to be the engine driving recent events. It is an attempt to look at the big picture that encompasses health care and attempts to find cultural meaning in daily life. In our world, that of health care delivery, it mandates that we must develop the knowledge and skills of CulturalCare.

This book is written primarily for the student in basic allied health professional programs, nursing, medical, social work, and other health care provider disciplines. I believe it will be helpful also for providers in all areas of practice, especially community health, long-term oncology, chronic care settings, and geriatric and hospice centers. I am attempting to write in a direct manner and to use language that is understandable by all. The material is sensitive, yet I believe that it is presented in a sensitive manner. At no point is my intent to create a vehicle for stereotyping. I know that one person will read this book and nod "Yes, this is how I see it," and someone else of the same background will say "No, this is not correct." This is the way it is meant to be. It is incomplete by intent. It is written in the spirit of open inquiry, so that an issue may be raised and so that clarification of any given point will be sought from the patient as health care is provided. The deeper I travel into this world of cultural diversity, the more I wonder at the variety. It is wonderfully exciting. By gaining insight into the traditional attitudes that people have toward health and health care, I find my own nursing practice is enhanced, and I am better able to understand the needs of patients and their families. It is thrilling to be able to meet, to know, and to provide care to people from all over the world. It is the excitement of nursing. As we now go forward in time, I hope that these words will help you, the reader, develop CulturalCare skills and help you to provide the best care to all.

Reviews
This item was reviewed in:
Doody's Reviews, February 2004
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Summaries
Long Description
For undergraduate and graduate courses in patient care and basic health related profession programs, as well as medical, social work, and other health disciplines. This text is based on the idea of CulturalCare, which is the concept that promotes health care as culturally sensitive, culturally appropriate, and culturally competent. Stressing that CulturalCare is both content and process, the text explores how this concept is essential in order to meet the complex health care needs of patients and their families and communities. Using a practical and student-friendly approach, the Sixth Edition examines how health care can cross social and cultural boundaries of a patient while assessing that patient's particular social environment as it relates to their health issues. Rich in pedagogy, the text includes case studies, illustrations, tables and a companion website, material related to demographics, immigration, poverty, and folk traditions are all covered. There is a shrink-wrapped book of assessment tools and guides included.
Long Description
For undergraduate and graduate courses in patient care and basic health related profession programs, as well as medical, social work, and other health disciplines. This text is based on the idea of "CulturalCare", which is the concept that promotes health care as culturally sensitive, culturally appropriate, and culturally competent. Stressing that CulturalCare is both content and process, the text explores how this concept is essential in order to meet the complex health care needs of patients and their families and communities. Using a practical and student-friendly approach, the Sixth Edition examines how health care can cross social and cultural boundaries of a patient while assessing that patient's particular social environment as it relates to their health issues. Rich in pedagogy, the text includes case studies, illustrations, tables and a companion website, material related to demographics, immigration, poverty, and folk traditions are all covered. There is a shrink-wrapped book of assessment tools and guides included.
Main Description
The sixth edition of this best-selling resource continues to teach nursing, health professions, medical and social science readers the importance of cultural competence and cultural awareness in the health care industry. The new edition will include revised organization to create a better flow of content, new content on gererational differences, updated chapter on health care delivery system, updated illustrations and tables and MediaLink icons. For undergraduate and graduate courses in patient care and basic health related profession programs, as well as medical, social work, and other health disciplines.
Main Description
The sixth edition of this well-respected book continues to promote an awareness of the dimensions and complexities involved in caring for people from diverse cultural backgrounds. Completely revised and updated, it includes the latest information on the health care delivery system in a new organizational format. It examines the differences existing within North America by probing the health care system and consumers, and examples of traditional health beliefs and practices among selected populations. An emphasis on the influences of recent social, political, and demographic changes helps to explore the issues and perceptions of health and illness today. Book jacket.
Bowker Data Service Summary
This text is based on the idea of 'CulturalCare', which is the concept that promotes health care as culturally sensitive, culturally appropriate and culturally competent. It explores how this concept is essential in order to meet the complex health care needs of patients and their families and communities.
Table of Contents
Prefacep. XI
Acknowledgmentsp. XVII
Cultural Foundationsp. 1
Cultural Heritage and Historyp. 3
National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Carep. 5
CulturalCarep. 8
Heritage Consistencyp. 8
Acculturation Themesp. 16
Ethnocultural Life Trajectoriesp. 18
Commingling Variablesp. 20
Cultural Conflictp. 21
Cultural Phenomena Affecting Healthp. 22
Diversityp. 29
Population: Census 2000p. 30
Immigrationp. 34
Povertyp. 41
Health and Illnessp. 47
Healthp. 48
Illnessp. 60
Health Domainsp. 69
Health Traditionsp. 73
Health and Illnessp. 75
Health Traditions Modelp. 75
Health Protectionp. 79
Health/Health Care Choicesp. 85
Folk Medicinep. 86
Health/Health Care Philosophiesp. 89
Healing Traditionsp. 101
Healingp. 102
Ancient Forms of Healingp. 103
Religion and Healingp. 104
Healing and Today's Beliefsp. 110
Ancient Rituals Related to the Life Cyclep. 118
Familial Health Traditionsp. 139
Familial Health/Health Traditionsp. 140
Consciousness Raisingp. 151
Health Care Delivery and Issuesp. 157
Trends in Development of the Health Care Systemp. 166
Health Care Reformp. 171
Common Problems in Health Care Deliveryp. 172
Pathways to Health Servicesp. 176
Medicine as an Institution of Social Controlp. 177
The Health Care Provider's Culturep. 180
Health and Illness Panoramasp. 183
Health and Illness in the American Indian and Alaska Native Populationp. 185
Backgroundp. 186
Traditional Definitions of Health and Illnessp. 188
Traditional Methods of Healingp. 190
Current Health Care Problemsp. 195
The Indian Health Servicep. 201
Health and Illness in the Asian Populationp. 209
Backgroundp. 211
Traditional Definitions of Health and Illnessp. 212
Traditional Methods of Health Maintenance and Protectionp. 217
Traditional Methods of Health Restorationp. 218
Current Health Problemsp. 223
Health and Illness in the Black Populationp. 231
Backgroundp. 233
Traditional Definitions of Health and Illnessp. 236
Traditional Methods of Health Maintenance and Protectionp. 236
Traditional Methods of Health Restorationp. 237
Current Health Problemsp. 243
Health and Illness in the Hispanic Populationp. 253
Backgroundp. 254
Mexicansp. 256
Puerto Ricansp. 268
Health and Illness in the White Populationp. 279
Backgroundp. 280
Italian Americansp. 283
German Americansp. 286
Polish Americansp. 290
Epiloguep. 301
Selected Key Terms Related to Cultural Diversity in Health and Illnessp. 309
Suggested Course Outlinep. 315
Suggested Course Activitiesp. 319
Heritage Assessment Toolp. 321
Quick Guide for CulturalCarep. 325
Data Resourcesp. 327
Networks: Selected Health-Related Organizationsp. 333
Folklife Centersp. 341
Bibliographyp. 343
Indexp. 365
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

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