The working back : a systems view /
William S. Marras.
Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons, c2008.
ix, 309 p.
0470134054 (cloth), 9780470134054 (cloth)
More Details
Hoboken, N.J. : John Wiley & Sons, c2008.
0470134054 (cloth)
9780470134054 (cloth)
contents note
Back pain magnitude and potential risk factors -- Function, structure, and support of the back -- The process of pain -- Potential pathways to back pain -- The assessment of biomechanical forces acting on the low back -- The influence of physical work factors on muscle activities and spine loads -- Psychosocial and organizational factor influence on spine loading -- Individual factors role in spine loading --
Physical, individual, and psychosocial/organizational risk factor interactions -- Engineering controls to mediate back pain at work : tools for the assessment of physical factor impact on spine loads and intervention -- Administrative controls for the workplace : psychosocial and organizational interventions -- Integrating risk interventions into the workplace -- Understanding recurrent low back pain and implications for return to work.
catalogue key
Includes bibliographic references.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
William S. Marras is a Professor in the College of Engineering and the College of Medicine at The Ohio State University and a Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineers, the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, the International Ergonomics Society, and the Ergonomics Society.
Review Quotes
"Since low back pain is one of the most common reasons for short and long term absence from work, a book which clearly explains its causes and makes practical suggestions for preventing it deserves a wide readership." ( The RoSPA Occupational Safety & Health Journal , June 2009)
"Since low back pain is one of the most common reasons for short and long term absence from work, a book which clearly explains its causes and makes practical suggestions for preventing it deserves a wide readership." (The RoSPA Occupational Safety & Health Journal, June 2009)
This item was reviewed in:
SciTech Book News, June 2008
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Bowker Data Service Summary
Low back pain is a disorder that will effect 80% of the workforce at some point in their career. This book explains how to effectively prevent low back pain in the workplace, saving employers extraordinary amounts in medical costs and protecting workers from on-the-job injury.
Back Cover Copy
A systems approach to understanding and minimizing the causes of low back pain in the workplace Low back pain affects 80% of the population at some point during their lifetime; it is responsiblefor over 40% of the compensation costs for work-related injuries. This book provides an understanding of the mechanisms influencing low back pain in the workplace and indicates how low back pain might be prevented, saving employers extraordinary amounts in medical costs and protecting workers from the most common on-the-job injury. With a unique, multidisciplinary perspective that shows how various influences or risk factors can be considered collectively, The Working Back: A Systems View: Explains basic concepts in anatomy and physiology that are essential to understanding and preventing low back pain Provides a systems perspective on the occupational causes of back pain, not only addressing factors such as spine loading, but also considering the potential impact of psychosocial and organizational interactions, genetics, and physiology Discusses implementing preventive engineering and administrative controls and integrating risk interventions into the workplace Offers an expert analysis of current medical research on low back pain in one comprehensive, accessible reference This book gives readers the knowledge to assess a work environment and prescribe effective interventions. It is a hands-on reference for ergonomists, manufacturing engineers, process engineers, industrial engineers and managers, safety engineers, nurses, therapists, chiropractors, physicians, and workers with back pain. It is also an excellent resource for graduate or undergraduate students of kinesiology, physiology, ergonomics, physical therapy, nursing, industrial design, engineering, and general medicine.
Table of Contents
Acknowledgmentsp. ix
Introductionp. 1
Audience for the Bookp. 3
Apolitical Causality Assessmentp. 4
A Systems View of Low Back Pain Causalityp. 4
The Reality of Workp. 5
How Might the Different Aspects of Work Be Associated with Back Painp. 6
Organization of the Bookp. 8
Back Pain Magnitude and Potential Risk Factorsp. 11
What is Back Pain?p. 11
How Common is Back Pain?p. 11
Back Pain at Workp. 12
Epidemiology of Work Risk Factorsp. 13
Epidemiology of Physical Risk Factorsp. 16
Epidemiology of Individual (Personal) Risk Factorsp. 18
Agep. 18
Genderp. 18
Anthropometryp. 19
Fitness/Strengthp. 20
Alcoholp. 20
Smokingp. 21
Heredity/Geneticsp. 21
Social Class and Psychological Factorsp. 21
Epidemiology of Work-Related Psychosocial/Organizational Factorsp. 22
Potential Interaction of Physical and Psychosocial Factorsp. 23
Key Pointsp. 25
Function, Structure, and Support of the Backp. 29
Body Coordinatesp. 29
Bony Structures of the Spinep. 29
The Disc (and the Spinal Joint)p. 31
Functional Spinal Unitp. 31
Spine Supportp. 32
Ligamentsp. 32
Musclesp. 35
Fasciap. 35
Nervesp. 37
Blood Vesselsp. 39
End Plates and Nutritionp. 40
Facetsp. 40
The Systemp. 41
Key Pointsp. 41
The Process of Painp. 43
What is Pain?p. 43
Origins of Painp. 44
Pain Transmissionp. 44
The Pain Processp. 46
The Inflammatory Process (Cytokines)p. 48
Peripheral Nervous System Sensitizationp. 50
Neuropathic Pain: The Cytokine Cascade and Nerve Sensitizationp. 51
Pain Mechanisms of the Central Nervous Systemp. 51
Role of the Environment in Central Sensitizationp. 52
Implications for Low Back Painp. 53
Nerves at Risk of Sensitizationp. 53
Tissues at Risk of Sensitizationp. 53
Disk and Nerve Rootsp. 54
Facet Jointsp. 54
Muscular-Based Painp. 55
Lumbar Nerve Rootsp. 56
Relationship between Tissue Loading and Painp. 56
Conclusionsp. 56
Key Pointsp. 56
Potential Pathways to Back Painp. 60
Views of Back Pain Causalityp. 60
A Unifying Model of Low Back Pain Pathwaysp. 63
The Support Structure Disruption Pathwaysp. 65
Support Structure Tolerancep. 66
Disc Tolerance Summaryp. 73
Pain Tolerancep. 74
The Muscle Function Disruption Pathwayp. 74
The Role of Individual Differences in the Pain Pathwaysp. 79
System Feedbackp. 81
Summaryp. 81
Key Pointsp. 82
The Assessment of Biomechanical Forces Acting on the Low Backp. 87
Biomechanical Concepts Applicable to the Backp. 88
Load Tolerancep. 88
Moments and Leversp. 89
External Versus Internal Loadingp. 90
How can we Modify Internal Spine Loads?p. 92
Biomechanical Arrangement of the Musculoskeletal Lever Systemp. 92
Length-Strength Relationshipp. 92
The Impact of Velocity on Muscle Forcep. 93
Temporal Relationshipsp. 94
Incorporating Spine Load Reductions into the Work Systemp. 95
Loading of the Lumbar Spinep. 95
Spine Load Assessmentsp. 96
Models of Spine Loadp. 97
Biologically Driven Modeling of Spine Loadingp. 100
Stability-Driven Spine Loading Modelsp. 106
Predictions of Muscle (Motor) Control within Torsop. 108
What Drives Motor Control? The Mental Modelp. 110
Summaryp. 112
Key Pointsp. 112
The Influence of Physical Work Factors on Muscle Activities and Spine Loadsp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Industrial Quantitative Surveillance of Physical Exposurep. 118
Strength Capacity Assessments of Work Loadp. 119
Static Analyses of Work Loadp. 120
Dynamic Analyses of Work Loadp. 121
Surveillance Conclusionsp. 127
Spine Loading and Task Performancep. 127
Spine Loading and Primary Physical Workplace Factorsp. 128
Moment Exposurep. 128
Role of Trunk Muscle Cocontraction in Spine Loadingp. 129
Trunk Motionp. 130
Nonsagittal Plane Loadingp. 133
Lateral Motionp. 134
Twisting Motionp. 136
Task Asymmetryp. 138
Lift Heightp. 139
One-Handed Versus Two-Handed Liftingp. 142
Lifting Versus Loweringp. 146
Cumulative Exposurep. 147
Duration of Exposure to Lifting Tasksp. 148
Worker Experience, Task Frequency, and Moment Exposurep. 150
Spine Loading Associated with Modification of Physical Workplace Factorsp. 154
Handlesp. 154
Lifting While Supporting the Bodyp. 156
Team Liftingp. 158
Pushing and Pullingp. 160
Seated and Constrained Work Posturesp. 164
Physical Work Factor Summaryp. 166
Summaryp. 169
Key Pointsp. 170
Psychosocial and Organizational Factor Influence on Spine Loadingp. 174
Introductionp. 174
Psychosocial and Organizational Interactionsp. 175
Biomechanical Responses to Psychosocial Environmentp. 176
Biomechanical Responses to Mental Stress at Workp. 178
Expectationp. 182
Conclusionsp. 183
Key Pointsp. 183
Individual Factors Role in Spine Loadingp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Genderp. 187
Personalityp. 193
Experiencep. 196
Conclusionsp. 198
Key Pointsp. 198
Physical, Individual, and Psychosocial/Organizational Risk Factor Interactionsp. 200
When Risk Factors Collidep. 200
The Magnitude of Influence of the Three Risk Factor Categoriesp. 201
Can Risk Factor Interactions be Predicted?p. 206
Conclusionsp. 207
Key Pointsp. 208
Engineering Controls to Mediate Back Pain at Work: Tools for the Assessment of Physical Factor Impact on Spine Loads and Intervention Effectivenessp. 210
Introductionp. 210
Static Strength Prediction Programsp. 211
Psychophysical Tolerance Limitsp. 212
Job Demand Indexp. 214
NIOSH Lifting Guide and Revised Equationp. 214
The 1981 Lifting Guidep. 214
The 1993 Revised Equationp. 216
Video-Based Biomechanical Modelsp. 218
Lumbar Motion Monitor Risk Assessmentp. 219
Lifting Threshold Limit Values (TLVs)p. 222
Workplace Assessment Comparisonsp. 226
Conclusionsp. 229
Key Pointsp. 229
Administrative Controls for the Workplace: Psychosocial and Organizational Interventionsp. 232
Implementing Psychosocial and Organizational Changep. 232
Elements of the Processp. 234
Traditional Administrative Controlsp. 236
Worker Selectionp. 236
Worker Rotationp. 236
Trainingp. 237
Stretching Programsp. 237
Back Beltsp. 238
Summaryp. 239
Key Pointsp. 240
Integrating Risk Interventions into the Workplacep. 242
Introductionp. 242
Systems Interventionp. 242
Examples of Intervention Effectivenessp. 243
Patient Handling Interventionsp. 243
Types of Physical Interventionsp. 246
Implementing Both Physical and Psychosocial Interventionsp. 247
Distribution Center Interventionsp. 248
Summaryp. 248
Key Pointsp. 249
Understanding Recurrent Low Back Pain and Implications for Return to Workp. 251
Introductionp. 251
The Natural History of Low Back Pain Recoveryp. 252
How can One Quantify the Extent of Low Back Pain?p. 253
Impairment Assessmentp. 254
Effort Sincerityp. 267
Spine Loading of those Experiencing Low Back Painp. 272
Can Kinematic Impairment Assessments Predict Changes in Spine Loading?p. 281
Lifting Exposure Limits for Workers with LBPp. 285
Recurrence of LBP and Workp. 286
A Return-to-Work Strategyp. 292
Conclusionsp. 292
Key Pointsp. 293
Conclusionsp. 298
Summaryp. 301
Indexp. 303
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