Catalogue


Introduction to research : understanding and applying multiple strategies /
Elizabeth DePoy, Laura N. Gitlin.
edition
3rd ed.
imprint
St. Louis, Mo. : Elsevier/Mosby, c2005.
description
xix, 346 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0323028535
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
St. Louis, Mo. : Elsevier/Mosby, c2005.
isbn
0323028535
standard identifier
9780323028530
catalogue key
5936945
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
Table of Contents
Introduction
Research as an Important Way of Knowingp. 3
Why Is Research Necessary?p. 4
What Is Research?p. 6
Research as Multiple Systematic Strategiesp. 7
Research as Thinking and Action Processesp. 7
Research as Four Basic Characteristicsp. 10
Summaryp. 11
Essentials of Researchp. 13
Ten Essentials of Researchp. 13
Identify a Philosophical Foundationp. 15
Frame a Research Problemp. 16
Determine Supporting Knowledgep. 16
Identify a Theory Basep. 17
Develop a Specific Question or Queryp. 17
Select a Design Strategyp. 18
Set Study Boundariesp. 18
Obtain Informationp. 19
Analyze Information and Draw Conclusionsp. 19
Share and Use Research Knowledgep. 19
Ethical Considerationsp. 19
Summaryp. 20
Thinking Processes
Philosophical Foundationsp. 23
Philosophical Foundation of Experimental-Type Researchp. 24
Philosophical Foundation of Naturalistic Inquiryp. 24
Implications of Philosophical Differences for Designp. 25
Research Traditionsp. 26
Experimental-Type Researchp. 26
Naturalistic Inquiryp. 27
Integrating Two Research Traditionsp. 27
Selecting a Research Tradition and Design Strategyp. 31
Purpose of Researchp. 31
Preference for Knowingp. 32
Level of Knowledge Developmentp. 32
Summaryp. 32
Framing the Problemp. 34
Identifying a Topicp. 35
Professional Experiencep. 36
Societal Trendsp. 36
Professional Trendsp. 36
Research Studiesp. 37
Existing Theoryp. 37
Framing a Research Problemp. 38
Interest, Relevance, and Needp. 38
Research Purposep. 38
Epistemology (Preferred Way of Knowing)p. 39
Resourcesp. 40
Summaryp. 40
Developing a Knowledge Base Through Review of the Literaturep. 41
Why Review the Literature?p. 42
Determine What Research Has Been Conducted on the Topic of Inquiryp. 42
Determine Level of Theory and Knowledge Development Relevant to Your Projectp. 43
Determine Relevance of the Current Knowledge Base to Your Problem Areap. 44
Provide a Rationale for Selection of the Research Strategyp. 45
How to Conduct a Literature Searchp. 45
Determine When to Conduct a Searchp. 46
Delimit What Is Searchedp. 46
Access Databases for Periodicals, Books, and Documentsp. 47
Organize Informationp. 49
Critically Evaluate the Literaturep. 50
Write the Literature Reviewp. 50
Summaryp. 51
Theory in Researchp. 54
Why Is Theory Important?p. 54
What Is Theory?p. 55
Levels of Abstractionp. 56
Role of Theory in Design Selectionp. 58
Theory in Experimental-Type Researchp. 59
Theory in Naturalistic Inquiryp. 61
Summaryp. 63
Formulating Research Questions and Queriesp. 64
Research Questions in Experimental-Type Designp. 65
Questions That Seek to Describe Phenomenap. 65
Questions That Explore Relationships Among Phenomenap. 67
Questions That Test Knowledgep. 67
Developing Experimental-Type Research Questionsp. 68
Hypothesesp. 68
Research Queries in Naturalistic Inquiryp. 70
Classic Ethnographyp. 71
Phenomenologyp. 71
Grounded Theoryp. 72
Developing Naturalistic Research Queriesp. 72
Integrating Research Approachesp. 72
Summaryp. 74
Language and Thinking Processesp. 76
Experimental-Type Language and Thinking Processesp. 77
Sequence of Experimental-Type Researchp. 78
Structure of Experimental-Type Researchp. 78
Plan of Designp. 80
Experimental-Type Design Summaryp. 86
Naturalistic Language and Thinking Processesp. 87
Purposep. 87
Context Specificityp. 87
Complexity and Pluralistic Perspective of Realityp. 87
Transferability of Findingsp. 88
Flexibilityp. 88
Languagep. 89
Emic and Etic Perspectivesp. 89
Gathering Information and Analysisp. 90
Naturalistic Design Summaryp. 90
Integrated and Mixed-Method Approachesp. 91
Summaryp. 91
Design Approaches
Experimental-Type Designsp. 95
True-Experimental Designsp. 96
Randomizationp. 97
Control Groupp. 98
Manipulationp. 98
True-Experimental Design Variationsp. 98
Posttest-Only Designsp. 99
Solomon Four-Group Designsp. 99
Factorial Designsp. 100
Counterbalance Designsp. 101
True-Experimental Design Summaryp. 101
Quasi-Experimental Designsp. 102
Nonequivalent Control Group Designsp. 102
Interrupted Time Series Designsp. 103
Combined Designp. 103
Quasi-Experimental Design Summaryp. 103
Pre-Experimental Designsp. 104
One-Shot Case Studyp. 104
Pretest-Posttest Designp. 104
Static Group Comparisonp. 104
Pre-Experimental Design Summaryp. 105
Nonexperimental Designsp. 105
Survey Designsp. 105
Passive Observation Designsp. 105
Ex Post Facto Designsp. 105
Nonexperimental Design Summaryp. 106
Experimental-Type Meta-Analysisp. 106
Criteria for Selecting Appropriate and Adequate Designsp. 107
Summaryp. 109
Naturalistic Inquiryp. 111
Endogenous Researchp. 112
Participatory Action Researchp. 113
Critical Theoryp. 115
Phenomenologyp. 116
Heuristic Researchp. 116
Ethnographyp. 117
Narrative Inquiryp. 118
Life Historyp. 120
Grounded Theoryp. 121
Naturalistic Meta-Analysisp. 121
Summaryp. 122
Action Processes
Setting the Boundaries of a Studyp. 127
Why Set Boundaries to a Study?p. 127
Implications of Boundary Settingp. 129
Specifying Who Participates and Who Does Not Participatep. 130
General Guidelines for Bounding Studiesp. 131
Subjects, Respondents, Informants, or Participantsp. 132
Summaryp. 132
Protecting the Boundariesp. 133
Principles for Protecting Human Subjectsp. 134
Full Disclosurep. 134
Confidentialityp. 134
Voluntary Participationp. 136
Belmont Reportp. 136
Institutional Review Boardp. 137
Three Levels of Reviewp. 138
Informed Consent Processp. 139
Study Approval and Monitoringp. 140
Developing an Informed Consent Documentp. 141
Involving Vulnerable Populationsp. 141
Specialized Oversight of Experimental-Type Designsp. 142
Summaryp. 143
Boundary Setting in Experimental-Type Designsp. 145
Sampling Processp. 146
Probability Samplingp. 148
Simple Random Samplingp. 150
Systematic Samplingp. 151
Stratified Random Samplingp. 151
Cluster Samplingp. 152
Nonprobability Methodsp. 152
Convenience Samplingp. 153
Purposive Samplingp. 153
Snowball Samplingp. 153
Quota Samplingp. 153
Comparing Sample to Populationp. 154
Determining Sample Sizep. 154
Summaryp. 156
Boundary Setting in Naturalistic Designsp. 157
Ways of Setting Boundariesp. 158
Geographical Locationp. 158
Cultural Groupsp. 159
Personal Experiencep. 159
Conceptsp. 160
Involving Research Participantsp. 161
Maximum Variationp. 162
Homogeneous Selectionp. 162
Theory-Based Selectionp. 162
Confirming and Disconfirming Casesp. 162
Extreme or Deviant Casep. 163
Typical Casep. 163
How Many Study Participants?p. 163
Process of Setting Boundaries and Selecting Informantsp. 164
Ethical Considerationsp. 165
Summaryp. 166
Collecting Informationp. 167
Principles of Information Collectionp. 168
Watching, Listening, and Recordingp. 168
Askingp. 169
Interviewsp. 169
Questionnairesp. 170
Obtaining and Examining Materialsp. 171
Unobtrusive Methodologyp. 171
Secondary Data Analysisp. 172
Artifact Reviewp. 172
Summaryp. 172
Measurement in Experimental-Type Researchp. 174
Measurement Processp. 175
Levels of Measurementp. 176
Nominalp. 177
Ordinalp. 177
Intervalp. 178
Ratiop. 178
Determining Appropriate Levelp. 178
Measurement Scalesp. 179
Likert-Type Scalep. 179
Guttman Scalep. 179
Semantic Differential Scalep. 180
Confidence in Instrumentsp. 180
Reliabilityp. 180
Validityp. 183
Considerations in Selecting a Measurep. 185
Purpose of Assessmentp. 185
Psychometric Propertiesp. 186
Populationp. 186
Information Sourcesp. 187
Item Selectionp. 188
Response Setp. 188
Constructing an Instrumentp. 188
Administering the Instrumentp. 189
Summaryp. 189
Gathering Information in Naturalistic Inquiryp. 191
Four Information-Gathering Principlesp. 192
Investigator Involvementp. 192
Information Collection and Analysisp. 193
Time Commitment in the Fieldp. 193
Multiple Information-Gathering Strategiesp. 194
Overview of Principlesp. 195
Information-Gathering Processp. 195
Selecting the Contextp. 195
Gaining Accessp. 196
"Learning the Ropes"p. 197
Information-Gathering Strategiesp. 198
Watching and Listeningp. 198
Askingp. 199
Four Components of Asking Strategiesp. 200
Examining Materialsp. 202
Recording Informationp. 202
Field Notesp. 202
Voice Recordingp. 203
Video Imagingp. 204
Accuracy in Collecting Informationp. 205
Multiple Data Gatherersp. 205
Triangulation (Crystallization)p. 205
Saturationp. 205
Member Checkingp. 206
Reflexivityp. 206
Audit Trailp. 207
Peer Debriefingp. 207
Summaryp. 207
Preparing and Organizing Datap. 210
Managing Data in Experimental-Type Researchp. 211
Managing Data in Naturalistic Inquiryp. 214
Practical Considerationsp. 217
Summaryp. 217
Statistical Analysis for Experimental-Type Researchp. 219
What Is Statistical Analysis?p. 220
Descriptive Statisticsp. 221
Frequency Distributionp. 222
Measures of Central Tendencyp. 224
Measures of Variabilityp. 226
Bivariate Descriptive Statisticsp. 229
Drawing Inferencesp. 231
State the Hypothesisp. 233
Select a Significance Levelp. 233
Compute a Calculated Valuep. 234
Obtain a Critical Valuep. 237
Reject or Fail to Reject the Null Hypothesisp. 238
Association and Relationshipsp. 238
Summaryp. 239
Analysis in Naturalistic Inquiryp. 241
Strategies and Stages in Naturalistic Analysisp. 242
Analysis in the Fieldp. 243
Engaging in Thinking Processp. 244
Developing Categoriesp. 244
Developing Taxonomiesp. 246
Discovering Underlying Themesp. 246
Formal Report Preparationp. 247
Examples of Analytical Processesp. 247
Grounded Theoryp. 247
Ethnographyp. 248
Accuracy and Rigor in Analysisp. 249
Triangulation (Crystallization)p. 250
Saturationp. 250
Member Checkingp. 250
Reflexivityp. 251
Audit Trailp. 251
Peer Debriefingp. 251
Summaryp. 251
Sharing Research Knowledge Before the Studyp. 253
Reasons for Sharing Before Field Engagementp. 253
Where to Seek Support for a Research Ideap. 254
Who Reads a Proposal?p. 256
Writing a Research Proposalp. 256
Basic Principlesp. 256
Common Elements of a Research Proposalp. 257
Special Considerationsp. 263
Preparing an Experimental-Type Proposalp. 263
Preparing a Naturalistic Proposalp. 263
Preparing a Mixed-Method Proposalp. 264
Summaryp. 264
Sharing Research Knowledge During and After the Studyp. 265
Writing Guidelinesp. 266
Clarityp. 266
Purposep. 266
Multiple Audiencesp. 266
Citationsp. 267
Writing an Experimental-Type Reportp. 267
Writing a Naturalistic Reportp. 269
Ethnographyp. 270
Phenomenologyp. 270
Writing an Integrated Reportp. 271
Accessibilityp. 271
Linguistic Sensitivityp. 271
Disseminationp. 272
Sharing Written Reportsp. 272
Publishing Your Workp. 272
Sharing Your Research Through Other Methodsp. 272
Summaryp. 273
Improving Practice Through Inquiry
Case Study Designsp. 277
What Is a Case Study?p. 277
Structure of Case Studiesp. 278
Structural Dimensionp. 279
Number of Casesp. 279
Design Sequencep. 279
Experimental-Type Approachp. 280
Naturalistic Approachp. 282
Mixed-Method Approachp. 282
Summaryp. 282
Practice Efficacyp. 284
Evidence-Based Practicep. 284
Definitions and Modelsp. 285
Approaches to Identifying Evidencep. 286
Limitations of Evidence-Based Practicep. 287
Clinical Trial Methodologyp. 288
Phases of Clinical Trialsp. 288
Binding (Masking)p. 289
Randomization Schemep. 290
Treatment Fidelityp. 290
Evaluation Practicep. 291
Problem and Need Clarificationp. 291
Reflexive Interventionp. 291
Outcome Assessmentp. 292
Summaryp. 292
Stories from the Fieldp. 294
Just Beginningp. 294
"I'll Do It for You, Sweetie"p. 295
In Search of Significance!p. 295
Is Health Care Effective?p. 295
Elevator Insightp. 295
A "Good" Research Subjectp. 295
A "Bad" Research Subjectp. 296
Native American?p. 296
The Pearson, or the Moral of the Coding, Storyp. 296
If You Can't Deliver, Don't Askp. 297
Don't Ask if You're Not Prepared to Answerp. 297
No Detail Too Smallp. 297
Wow, You Got It!p. 297
Appendix
Informed Consent Documentsp. 299
Glossaryp. 317
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

This information is provided by a service that aggregates data from review sources and other sources that are often consulted by libraries, and readers. The University does not edit this information and merely includes it as a convenience for users. It does not warrant that reviews are accurate. As with any review users should approach reviews critically and where deemed necessary should consult multiple review sources. Any concerns or questions about particular reviews should be directed to the reviewer and/or publisher.

  link to old catalogue

Report a problem