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House of war : the Pentagon and the disastrous rise of American power /
James Carroll.
imprint
Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006.
description
xiv, 657 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN
0618187804, 9780618187805
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006.
isbn
0618187804
9780618187805
catalogue key
5900402
 
Includes bibliographical references (p. [609]-623) and index.
A Look Inside
Excerpts
Excerpt from Book
ONE ONE WEEK IN 1943 1. Hell's Bottom A year after the Al Qaeda attack, at a rededication ceremony on September 11, 2002, much was made of the post-9/11 repairs having been completed in a mere twelve months. No one seemed to know that the entire Building had been constructed from start to finish in less than sixteen months. It was made of cement for which 700,000 tons of sand were dredged from the Potomac riverbed next to the site. The river's edge is key to the Building's impression, evoking a forbidden temple of the timeless past, as if looming over the ancient Nile.1 The picturesque lagoon that sets off the River Entrance, like a plaza waiting to receive the barge of Cleopatra, is a vestige of that dredging.2 Relatively little steel was used in the construction - those ramps instead of elevators - because it was needed just then for bullets, shells, and tanks. Planners took for granted that once the war emergency had passed, the hulking edifice would be handed over for civilian use: a depot for government records or - and this is what my mother told me, which is why I always believed it, even after learning it was a myth - a facility for the care of wounded and disabled veterans, the ramps built for wheelchairs and gurneys. The largest hospital in the world. My mother's devotion to this idea was sacralized when my brother Joe was stricken with polio, making her a haunter of hospitals, a connoisseur of ramps. Joe's polio, in turn, transformed into worship her devotion to the similarly stricken, but nobly unbowed, President Roosevelt. He was photographed visiting the Building just before its completion in January 1943, but there is no record of his using a wheelchair there. In fact, Roosevelt was deeply conflicted about the Pentagon. As assistant secretary of the Navy during WorldWar I, he had ordered the construction of barracks-like "tempos" all over Washington, and these eyesores were still there twenty years later, despoiling especially the Mall between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. The structures were a source of self-rebuke to Roosevelt. The War Department alone occupied seventeen separate facilities around Washington. To consolidate the offices in one handsome place, FDR had personally overseen the construction of a new headquarters building at 21st Street in Foggy Bottom, but no sooner was it completed than World War II broke out. By mid- 1941, the Army had mushroomed to a million and a half men; the new headquarters was instantly inadequate, and senior Army officials told the president they would never use it.3 Though its entrance was decorated by a huge, undiplomatic martial mural - helmeted soldiers in combat - the building would become the headquarters of the State Department, which it remains to this day. The size of the space was not the only issue. The freshly empowered Army wanted its new building to be set apart from the so-called Federa West Executive Area, apart from entanglements with, and the limits of, the seat of government. In a time of peril, the Army was not about to be treated as just another bureaucratic function, alongside Interior and Commerce and Indian Affairs. The Army would transcend. Senior military officials immediately began scouting sites outside the city - this despite the explicit terms of congressional appropriations for construction within Washington.4 A site in Virginia appealed to the Army because, for one thing, District of Columbia architectural supervision would not hinder the mammoth scale envisioned by departmental planners. Yet even across the river the initial site selection proved controversial. The D.C. Fine Arts Commission, chaired by
First Chapter
ONE

ONE WEEK IN 1943

1. Hell’s Bottom

A year after the Al Qaeda attack, at a rededication ceremony on September 11, 2002, much was made of the post-9/11 repairs having been completed in a mere twelve months. No one seemed to know that the entire Building had been constructed from start to finish in less than sixteen months. It was made of cement for which 700,000 tons of sand were dredged from the Potomac riverbed next to the site. The river’s edge is key to the Building’s impression, evoking a forbidden temple of the timeless past, as if looming over the ancient Nile.1 The picturesque lagoon that sets off the River Entrance, like a plaza waiting to receive the barge of Cleopatra, is a vestige of that dredging.2 Relatively little steel was used in the construction — those ramps instead of elevators — because it was needed just then for bullets, shells, and tanks. Planners took for granted that once the war emergency had passed, the hulking edifice would be handed over for civilian use: a depot for government records or — and this is what my mother told me, which is why I always believed it, even after learning it was a myth — a facility for the care of wounded and disabled veterans, the ramps built for wheelchairs and gurneys. The largest hospital in the world. My mother’s devotion to this idea was sacralized when my brother Joe was stricken with polio, making her a haunter of hospitals, a connoisseur of ramps. Joe’s polio, in turn, transformed into worship her devotion to the similarly stricken, but nobly unbowed, President Roosevelt. He was photographed visiting the Building just before its completion in January 1943, but there is no record of his using a wheelchair there.
In fact, Roosevelt was deeply conflicted about the Pentagon. As assistant secretary of the Navy during WorldWar I, he had ordered the construction of barracks-like “tempos” all over Washington, and these eyesores were still there twenty years later, despoiling especially the Mall between the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument. The structures were a source of self-rebuke to Roosevelt. The War Department alone occupied seventeen separate facilities around Washington. To consolidate the offices in one handsome place, FDR had personally overseen the construction of a new headquarters building at 21st Street in Foggy Bottom, but no sooner was it completed than World War II broke out. By mid- 1941, the Army had mushroomed to a million and a half men; the new headquarters was instantly inadequate, and senior Army officials told the president they would never use it.3 Though its entrance was decorated by a huge, undiplomatic martial mural — helmeted soldiers in combat — the building would become the headquarters of the State Department, which it remains to this day.
The size of the space was not the only issue. The freshly empowered Army wanted its new building to be set apart from the so-called Federa West Executive Area, apart from entanglements with, and the limits of, the seat of government. In a time of peril, the Army was not about to be treated as just another bureaucratic function, alongside Interior and Commerce and Indian Affairs. The Army would transcend. Senior military officials immediately began scouting sites outside the city — this despite the explicit terms of congressional appropriations for construction within Washington.4 A site in Virginia appealed to the Army because, for one thing, District of Columbia architectural supervision would not hinder the mammoth scale envisioned by departmental planners. Yet even across the river the initial site selection proved controversial. The D.C. Fine Arts Commission, chaired by Roosevelt’s cousin Frederick A. Delano, reached across the Potomac to denounce the “flagrant disregard”5 of context in the Army’s wish to build at the western end of Memorial Bridge. The site was then occupied by Arlington Farms, an agricultural research facility — all that was left of Robert E. Lee’s original plantation, the rest of which had long before been seized by the federal government to serve as the national cemetery. Recovering from the punitive impulse of that requisition, Washington had, in the 1920s, established a symbol of reconciliation between North and South by aligning an axis along Memorial Bridge between Lee’s becolumned mansion atop the hill at Arlington and the Lincoln Memorial, which was completed in 1922. Joined to Lincoln in this way, Lee was thus linked along the Mall to George Washington and the Capitol. The proposed new War Department building, just below the Lee mansion and directly on that axis, would destroy the geographic symbol of national reconciliation.
When that was pointed out too President Roosevelt, he ordered the War Department building moved about a mile downriver. At the same time, considering the architects’ plansssss for the hulking structure, FDR ordered the size of the building reduced by half. Among other considerations, the president expressed concern for the psychological effect on those who would be employed amid such dominating impersonality.6 He also affirmed that, after “the present emergency,” the War Department headquarters would be returned to Washington where it belonged; no permanent headquarters building would be necessary in Virginia. Roosevelt found himself declaring that the Army could make do, as the Navy would, with yet more tempos. (The Navy Annex was constructed to be temporary, but to this day it sits on the Arlington ridge, above the Pentagon.)When the general in charge of the project objected to these terms, the president said, “My dear General, I’m still Commander-in-Chief of the Army.”7 The general complied, but only partially. The new downriver site was accepted — an unsightly shack-ridden wasteland called Hell’s Bottom. It was a former airfield and railroad yard littered with abandoned tin hangars and rusted-out boxcars. But without Roosevelt’s knowledge, the general declined to reduce the size of the Building, and with the help of Virginia congressmen, he protected the appropriations needed to make the construction permanent. By then the Building’s architects, led by G. Edwin Bergstrom, who had also designed the Hollywood Bowl, had completed drawings for the upriver site at Arlington Farms. The original design for that now abandoned location called for a simple rectangular footprint, but access roads required one corner of the rectangle to be cut off, leaving an asymmetrical five-sided building. What Bergstrom did was to even up the five sides, producing — voilr — the Pentagon. When the site was moved downriver, the polygonal shape was no longer required by the limits of the roadways, but such was the hurried pace of the project that the architects did not change the design. Eventually Bergstrom and others would mythologize the pentagonal form of the War Department headquarters as an echo of Napoleonic-era fortress architecture.8 The true, entirely mundane origin of the design would be forgotten.
Over the next year, more than a hundred architects and nearly as many engineers worked around the clock in those abandoned airplane hangars, turning out drawings for the more than fifteen thousand laborers, who often didn’t wait for specs. Pearl Harbor was attacked almost three months after groundbreaking, and from then on the already quickened pace of construction was redoubled. “How big should I make that beam across the third floor?” one architect asked another, who replied, “I don’t know. They installed it yesterday.”9 * * * Supervising all of this work was a Corps of Engineers colonel named Leslie R. Groves, who was forty-five years old when appointed to head up Pentagon construction. He was a burly, corpulent man whose belly protruded like lips over his brass-buckled belt.10 A man of the job, Groves was an important military manager. In charge of the Army’s crash building program across the country (in 1940 the Corps’s construction budget skyrocketed from $20 million to $10 billion), he had already purchased half the lumber in the United States.11 Born into an Army family four years after the Battle of Wounded Knee, in 1890, which marked the end of the Indian wars, Groves had spent part of his childhood at Fort Apache, Arizona, living in the house of a man famous for killing Indians.12 His lifelong hero was General William Tecumseh Sherman, whose “march to the sea” across Georgia legitimized the spirit of total war, which after the CivilWar was unleashed on Native Americans.
Groves began as a student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but when his older brother died in 1914 — of a disease contracted at the same Arlington Farms that would much later be the first site proposed for the Pentagon — Groves transferred to West Point. From then on he wore a mustache, which did nothing to soften his stern, unfriendly demeanor. Work in the Corps of Engineers was essentially a matter of management, and Groves proved himself again and again. By the time he was put in charge of Pentagon construction, his most notable prior service had been in Nicaragua, developing plans for a second (never undertaken) canal across the Central American isthmus.13 As the Pentagon neared completion, Groves was promoted to brigadier general, although for a reason having to do with his next project, not this one. Among his last decisions in Arlington was one that provided the new Building with separate eating and lavatory accommodations for “colored people” and whites. The dining areas for blacks would be in the basement, and on the other floors, at each corridor junction, double toilet facilities would be built, separated by race. When President Roosevelt visited the Building shortly before its dedication, he asked why there were so many lavatories (more than two hundred), and he was told that the Army was abiding by Virginia’s racial laws. Roosevelt had issued an order prohibiting such discrimination throughout the U.S. military only six months earlier, and he told Groves to get rid of the Whites Only signs at once. Groves obeyed. Because he was overridden by the president, the Pentagon would for a long time be the only place in Virginia where segregation was not allowed.14 Within days of Roosevelt’s visit to the new War Department headquarters, at an understated ceremony presided over by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, the Pentagon was dedicated. Wartime exigencies eclipsed such a formality in the memoirs and memories of witnesses. Honor guards would have mounted battle flags in mahogany stands, and portraits of former secretaries of war would have been unveiled. One imagines the Army band playing martial music. Perhaps a ribbon was cut. It was January 15, 1943.15

Copyright © 2006 by James Carroll. Reprinted with permission by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Full Text Reviews
Appeared in Library Journal on 2006-03-15:
Most Americans may assume that the Pentagon plays a central role in formulating not only U.S. military but also foreign policy, yet this was not always so. Carroll (Constantine's Sword) argues that America's emergence as a nuclear superpower catapulted the defense establishment to the forefront in shaping military and foreign policy and, consequently, domestic policy. He contends that the Pentagon's influence is now virtually unchecked, beyond even the direct control of the commander in chief. Chronicling the ascent of America's military establishment from 1943 to the aftermath of 9/11, Carroll uses the Pentagon as a metaphor for a U.S. political culture that values military power over human rights and seeks to project U.S. influence and values abroad by force, if necessary, whether invited by other countries or not. Such values are a stark departure from America's past, when the public feared a large, professional military and imposed strict civilian control to limit the extent of its influence. With such broad and controversial claims, Carroll's theses will be disputed, yet his argument is well documented and persuasively made. He also relates his personal struggle to come to terms with the values of his father, a general who served in the Pentagon and later in the FBI as a counter-espionage agent and consistently supported the defense establishment's positions. Certain to be a widely read and discussed book, this is worthy of space on the shelves of all libraries. [See Prepub Alert, LJ 1/06.]-Thomas J. Baldino, Wilkes Univ., Wilkes-Barre, PA (c) Copyright 2010. Library Journals LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Media Source, Inc. No redistribution permitted.
Appeared in Choice on 2007-04-01:
Ostensibly a history of the Pentagon, this large volume is filled with anecdotes and background on a colorful group of Americans who influenced the policies for war and diplomacy from the time of the building's dedication on September 11, 1941. The panorama includes Leslie Groves and Curtis LeMay, James Forrestal and George Kennan, the younger and older Robert McNamara, Donald Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney, and Paul Nitze. Woven within is the personal history of James Carroll and his father, Joseph, whose career included Pentagon service in the Air Force and as the founding director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Historians might critique Carroll's emphasis on the revisionists and neorevisionists for his interpretations, as well as his alleged thesis that the "House of War" has operated beyond the control of any force in government and society. In fact, the story he tells shows the Pentagon as a bureaucracy with rival opinions and with leadership, including that of several presidents, showing judicious restraint. Superb photographs. ^BSumming Up: Highly recommended. All levels/libraries. C. W. Haury Piedmont Virginia Community College
Appeared in Publishers Weekly on 2006-04-10:
If there were nothing more to Carroll's book than its chronicling of the U.S. military's amassing of power and influence from WWII to the present, it would still be valuable history. But the National Book Award winner (An American Requiem) makes the story something else altogether. "The lifetime of the Pentagon is my lifetime," he asserts, noting that the building had its dedication ceremony the week he was born; he also grew up playing in its maze-like corridors while his father worked as a high-ranking air force general. The nuclear dread that dominated the Cold War era thus plays out as personal and family drama, turning the book into "[my] long-delayed conversation with [my] father." It's strongest in its first half, where the development of atomic power and the turmoil of the Vietnam era hold the greatest personal significance for Carroll; later sections on the Reagan and Clinton eras are informative but less intimate. Carroll's approach can be poetic-he makes much, for example, of the coincidence that the Pentagon groundbreaking took place on September 11, 1941-but the emotional weight he brings to a Chomsky-like critique of American militarism results in an aggressively compelling history. Photos. (May 16) (c) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved
Reviews
Review Quotes
"An aggressively compelling history."
[An] unequivocally mesmerizing account. . . . Certain to be one of the most talked-about nonfiction books of the season."
ÝAn¨ unequivocally mesmerizing account. . . . Certain to be one of the most talked-about nonfiction books of the season."
"A prodigious historical synthesis, with pressing importance for our times, and also a deeply engaging story." --Tracy Kidder, author of My Detachment: A Memoir
"A prodigious historical synthesis, with pressing importance for our times, and also a deeply engaging story." --Tracy Kidder, author of My Detachment: A Memoir House of War is a masterful achievement...[Carroll's] prose is elegant, his viewpoint bold." --Howard Zinn, author of The People's History of the United States "[Carroll has] the historical depth, elegance of style, and moral complexity to have taken the full measure of [the Pentagon]." --Bill McKibben, author of The End of Nature "One cannot understand the impact of the Pentagon on US foreign policy...without reading James Carroll's House of War." --Lawrence Korb, former Undersecretary of Defence under Ronald Reagan [An] unequivocally mesmerizing account. . . . Certain to be one of the most talked-about nonfiction books of the season." Booklist, ALA "[James Carroll] brings to shocking life the truth of Randolph Bourne's dictum: 'War is the health of the state.'" --Garry Wills, author of Nixon Agonistes and Henry Adams and the Making of America "Altogether excellent, and essential for understanding the birth of America's empire." Kirkus Reviews, Starred "An aggressively compelling history." Publishers Weekly, Starred
"[Carroll has] the historical depth, elegance of style, and moral complexity to have taken the full measure of [the Pentagon]." --Bill McKibben, author of The End of Nature
"ÝCarroll has¨ the historical depth, elegance of style, and moral complexity to have taken the full measure of Ýthe Pentagon¨." --Bill McKibben, author of The End of Nature
House of War is a masterful achievement...[Carroll's] prose is elegant, his viewpoint bold." --Howard Zinn, author of The People's History of the United States
House of War is a masterful achievement...ÝCarroll's¨ prose is elegant, his viewpoint bold." --Howard Zinn, author of The People's History of the United States
"[James Carroll] brings to shocking life the truth of Randolph Bourne's dictum: 'War is the health of the state.'" --Garry Wills, author of Nixon Agonistes and Henry Adams and the Making of America
"ÝJames Carroll¨ brings to shocking life the truth of Randolph Bourne's dictum: 'War is the health of the state.'" --Garry Wills, author of Nixon Agonistes and Henry Adams and the Making of America
"One cannot understand the impact of the Pentagon on US foreign policy...without reading James Carroll's House of War." --Lawrence Korb, former Undersecretary of Defence under Ronald Reagan
This item was reviewed in:
Kirkus Reviews,
Library Journal, January 2006
Booklist, February 2006
Library Journal, March 2006
Publishers Weekly, April 2006
Boston Globe, May 2006
San Francisco Chronicle, May 2006
USA Today, May 2006
Wall Street Journal, May 2006
Washington Post, May 2006
New York Times Book Review, July 2006
Chicago Tribune, August 2006
Choice, April 2007
To find out how to look for other reviews, please see our guides to finding book reviews in the Sciences or Social Sciences and Humanities.
Summaries
Long Description
From the National Book Award-winning author of An American Requiem and Constantine's Sword comes a sweeping yet intimate look at the Pentagon and its vast -- often hidden -- impact on America. This landmark, myth-shattering work chronicles the most powerful institution in America, the people who created it, and the pathologies it has spawned. James Carroll proves a controversial thesis: the Pentagon has, since its founding, operated beyond the control of any force in government or society. It is the biggest, loosest cannon in American history, and no institution has changed this country more. To argue his case, he marshals a trove of often chilling evidence. He recounts how "the Building" and its denizens achieved what Eisenhower called "a disastrous rise of misplaced power" -- from the unprecedented aerial bombing of Germany and Japan during World War II to the "shock and awe" of Iraq. He charts the colossal U.S. nuclear buildup, which far outpaced that of the USSR, and has outlived it. He reveals how consistently the Building has found new enemies just as old threats -- and funding -- evaporate. He demonstrates how Pentagon policy brought about U.S. indifference to an epidemic of genocide during the 1990s. And he shows how the forces that attacked the Pentagon on 9/11 were set in motion exactly sixty years earlier, on September 11, 1941, when ground was broken for the house of war. Carroll draws on rich personal experience (his father was a top Pentagon official for more than twenty years) as well as exhaustive research and dozens of extensive interviews with Washington insiders. The result is a grand yet intimate work of history, unashamedly polemical and personal butunerringly factual. With a breadth and focus that no other book could muster, it explains what America has become over the past sixty years.
Main Description
From the National Book Award--winning author of An American Requiem and Constantine's Sword comes a sweeping yet intimate look at the Pentagon and its vast -- often hidden -- impact on America. This landmark, myth-shattering work chronicles the most powerful institution in America, the people who created it, and the pathologies it has spawned. James Carroll proves a controversial thesis: the Pentagon has, since its founding, operated beyond the control of any force in government or society. It is the biggest, loosest cannon in American history, and no institution has changed this country more. To argue his case, he marshals a trove of often chilling evidence. He recounts how "the Building" and its denizens achieved what Eisenhower called "a disastrous rise of misplaced power" -- from the unprecedented aerial bombing of Germany and Japan during World War II to the "shock and awe" of Iraq. He charts the colossal U.S. nuclear buildup, which far outpaced that of the USSR, and has outlived it. He reveals how consistently the Building has found new enemies just as old threats -- and funding -- evaporate. He demonstrates how Pentagon policy brought about U.S. indifference to an epidemic of genocide during the 1990s. And he shows how the forces that attacked the Pentagon on 9/11 were set in motion exactly sixty years earlier, on September 11, 1941, when ground was broken for the house of war. Carroll draws on rich personal experience (his father was a top Pentagon official for more than twenty years) as well as exhaustive research and dozens of extensive interviews with Washington insiders. The result is a grand yet intimate work of history, unashamedly polemical and personal but unerringly factual. With a breadth and focus that no other book could muster, it explains what America has become over the past sixty years.
Main Description
From the National Book Award-winning author of An American Requiem and Constantine's Sword comes a sweeping yet intimate look at the Pentagon and its vast -- often hidden -- impact on America. This landmark, myth-shattering work chronicles the most powerful institution in America, the people who created it, and the pathologies it has spawned. James Carroll proves a controversial thesis: the Pentagon has, since its founding, operated beyond the control of any force in government or society. It is the biggest, loosest cannon in American history, and no institution has changed this country more. To argue his case, he marshals a trove of often chilling evidence. He recounts how "the Building" and its denizens achieved what Eisenhower called "a disastrous rise of misplaced power" -- from the unprecedented aerial bombing of Germany and Japan during World War II to the "shock and awe" of Iraq. He charts the colossal U.S. nuclear buildup, which far outpaced that of the USSR, and has outlived it. He reveals how consistently the Building has found new enemies just as old threats -- and funding -- evaporate. He demonstrates how Pentagon policy brought about U.S. indifference to an epidemic of genocide during the 1990s. And he shows how the forces that attacked the Pentagon on 9/11 were set in motion exactly sixty years earlier, on September 11, 1941, when ground was broken for the house of war. Carroll draws on rich personal experience (his father was a top Pentagon official for more than twenty years) as well as exhaustive research and dozens of extensive interviews with Washington insiders. The result is a grand yet intimate work of history, unashamedly polemical and personal but unerringly factual. With a breadth and focus that no other book could muster, it explains what America has become over the past sixty years.
Main Description
In House of War, the best-selling author James Carroll has created a history of the Pentagon that is both epic and personal. Through Carroll we see how the Pentagon, since its founding, has operated beyond the control of any force in government or society, undermining the very national security it is sworn to protect.From its "birth" on September 11, 1941, through the nuclear buildup of the Cold War and the eventual "shock and awe" of Iraq, Carroll recounts how "the Building" and its officials have achieved what President Eisenhower called "a disastrous rise of misplaced power." This is not faded history. House of War offers a compelling account of the virtues and follies that led America to permanently, and tragically, define itself around war. Carroll shows how the consequences of the American response to September 11, 2001 --- including two wars and an ignited Middle East --- form one end of an arc that stretches from Donald Rumsfeld back to James Forrestal, the first man to occupy the office of secretary of defense in the Pentagon. House of War confronts this dark past so we may understand the current war and forestall the next.
Main Description
In House of War, the best-selling author James Carroll has created a history of the Pentagon that is both epic and personal. Through Carroll we see how the Pentagon, since its founding, has operated beyond the control of any force in government or society, undermining the very national security it is sworn to protect. From its "birth" on September 11, 1941, through the nuclear buildup of the Cold War and the eventual "shock and awe" of Iraq, Carroll recounts how "the Building" and its officials have achieved what President Eisenhower called "a disastrous rise of misplaced power." This is not faded history. House of War offers a compelling account of the virtues and follies that led America to permanently, and tragically, define itself around war. Carroll shows how the consequences of the American response to September 11, 2001 - including two wars and an ignited Middle East - form one end of an arc that stretches from Donald Rumsfeld back to James Forrestal, the first man to occupy the office of secretary of defense in the Pentagon. House of War confronts this dark past so we may understand the current war and forestall the next. Book jacket.
Table of Contents
Prologuep. xi
The Invisible Boy
One Week in 1943p. 1
Hell's Bottom
Unconditional Surrender
Operation Pointblank
Le May
The Whiz Kid
Leslie Groves Does It All
The Other September 11s
The Absolute Weaponp. 40
Truman's "Decision."
Stimson's Defense
Not Japan, but Moscow?
Atomic Forgetfulness
Groves's Toboggan
The Second Coming in Wrath
The Hamburg Threshold
After Dresden
The Babe Ruth of Bombers
Born in Original Sin
The Cold War Beginsp. 103
Tendered a Commission
Stimson's September 11
Forrestal Agonistes
Kennan's Mistake
Foundational Paranoia
War Inside the Pentagon
Blockade and the Birth of the Air Force
The Russians Are Coming
Navy Versus Air Force
That Cop
Self-Fulfilling Paranoiap. 161
Stalin's Teeth
No to the Hydrogen Bomb
Nitze to the Rescue
Forrestal's Ghost: NSC-68
Korea Saved Us
Truman's Other Decision
The Test
Duck and Cover
Massive Retaliation
The Missed Opportunity
Defense Intellectuals
Operation Top Hat
The Gaither Report: Nitze Again
The Turning Pointp. 227
Life of the Pentagon
A Lark in Berlin
There Will Be War
Head to Richmond
Let Both Sides
The Need for New Intelligence
McNamara and LeMay
All-Out Spasm Attack
The Kaysen Memos
Edge of the Abyss
At American University
Why We Love Him
The Exorcismp. 293
Present at the Destruction
LeMay to the Absurd
Errors of the Mind
Great White Whale
McNamaras Endgame
From Disarmament to Arms Control
The Berrigan Brothers
Enter the ABM, Reenter Nitze
Nixon and Laird
Knockout Blow
Bombing the Pentagon? Not with a Bang
Upstreamp. 345
Nuclear Priesthood
The Madman Theory
The Schlesinger Doctrine
Enter Rumsfeld and Cheney
Jimmy Carter's Question
The Frozen Smile
The People Are Heard
Be Not Afraid
We Win, You Lose, Sign Here
The Freeze
The Abolitionist
Sanctuary
Enter Gorbachev
Answer to Forrestal
Unending Warp. 418
Into Plowshares
Back to Stimson
Operation Just Cause
Fool's Game
New World Order
The Chinese Word
Goldwater-Nichols
The Immigrant's Son
Clinton's Honor
Gays in the Military
The Real Contrast with Truman
The Nuclear Posture Review
The Balkan Wars
Apostolic Succession
September 11, 2001
Epilogue: New World Orderp. 491
National Memory
The Normalization of War
Instant Replay
National Security? Revenge
I Have a Dream
Acknowledgmentsp. 515
Notesp. 517
Bibliographyp. 609
Indexp. 624
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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