Before the mast : life and death aboard the Mary Rose /
edited by Julie Gardiner with Michael J. Allen ; with contributions from Mary-Anne Alburger ... [et al.].
Portsmouth, England : Mary Rose Trust, 2005.
xx, 732 p., [24] p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 31 cm.
0954402944 (hbk.)
More Details
added author
Portsmouth, England : Mary Rose Trust, 2005.
0954402944 (hbk.)
catalogue key
Includes bibliographical references (p. [696]-712) and index.
A Look Inside
This item was reviewed in:
Reference & Research Book News, May 2006
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Main Description
The Mary Rose carried a crew of naval officers and sailors, a fighting force of gunners and soldiers, a Barber-surgeon, several ship's carpenters and skilled navigators. Of nearly 500 men, fewer than 40 survived the sinking on 19th July 1545. Excavation of the hull and contents produced a huge collection of objects that together make up a detailed picture of what life was like on board. This book explores how the men lived, how they were fed, music and recreation, medicine, as well as working practices: carpentry and maintenance, stowage, navigation and ship's communications. The volume also includes an analysis of the human remains.
Long Description
450 years ago Henry VIII's flagship tipped then sank on its maiden voyage in Portsmouth harbour. In 1982, amidst huge publicity, an expert crew of archaeologists and conservators raised the wreck and started a process of research that is now revealing fascinating details of life aboard the Tudor warship. Shipwrecks offer a chance to investigate a whole world, caught at a moment in time, and this volume sheds light on some of the minutiae of Tudor life inaccessible through any other means. (This is a provisional description awaiting a final version to be cleared with the Mary Rose Trust).
Long Description
The Mary Rose carried a crew of naval officers and sailors, a fighting force of gunners and soldiers, a Barber-surgeon, several ship's carpenters and skilled navigators. Of nearly 500 men, fewer than 40 survived the sinking on 19th July 1545. Trapped by netting, or below deck, they stood little chance, and their bodies and belongings went to the bottom of the sea. Excavation of the hull and contents produced a huge collection of objects that together make up a detailed picture of what life was like on board. Before the Mast explores how the men of the Mary Rose lived, through their surviving possessions; how they were fed; their music and recreation, medicine and provision for illness and injury, as well as working practices: carpentry and maintenance, stowage, navigation and ship's communications. The personal possessions of the crew included religious items, books, fishing lines and weights, sewing kits, money, hair combs, jewellery, knives, musical instruments and many items of clothing. The Barber-surgeon, who had his own cabin, brought on board a fine chest filled with canisters, bottles and pots of ointment and medicines, a variety of surgical instruments and a fine set of razors. Another cabin nearby was clearly occupied by the ship's carpenters whose toolkit included planes, adzes, axes, hammers and drills, as well as pitch pots and special mallets for patching up leaks in the ship's hull. The ship's navigators had the best in sixteenth century compasses. The ship's galley was in the hold and this area in particular produced many examples of wooden and pewter plates, bowls, pots, bread troughs, and tankards, as well as barrels and baskets still containing beef, pork, fish and fruit. The volume also includes an analysis of the human remains providing evidence for the stature and age range of the men most were under 30 their health, and injuries sustained. Before the Mast is now available again in a two volume edition published by Oxbow Books.
Table of Contents
List of figuresp. viii
List of tablesp. xiii
List of colour platesp. xv
Contributorsp. xvi
Acknowledgementsp. xvii
Abstractp. xix
Life on the Mary Rose: The Contents of the Ship
The 'Good Shippe' Mary Rose: an Introduction
The layout of the shipp. 1
Excavation and post-excavation recovery and recordingp. 3
Databasesp. 9
Nomenclature and citations used in this volumep. 10
The crew of the Mary Rosep. 11
A glimpse of life on board the Mary Rosep. 12
19 July 1545p. 16
Silk Hats to Woolly Socks: clothing remains
The textile and leather clothing assemblages
Tudor clothing and the provision of clothing for Tudor marinersp. 19
The range of textiles and leather clothes from the Mary Rosep. 20
Association between clothing and human remainsp. 21
Clothing stored in chests and sacksp. 23
Associated artefactsp. 25
Evidence for occupation and statusp. 26
Recording the clothing remainsp. 27
Fibres, fabrics and sources of leatherp. 28
The clothingp. 31
Headwearp. 31
Leather jerkinsp. 37
Cloth jerkins, jackets or doubletsp. 48
Handwearp. 55
Lower body clothingp. 56
Footwearp. 59
Fasteningsp. 94
Bucklesp. 99
Miscellaneous decorations: braids, cords and ribbonsp. 105
Personal Possessions: purses to paternosters
Accessories: bags, pouches and pursesp. 107
Ornaments and jewelleryp. 113
Religious itemsp. 117
Books and writing equipmentp. 127
Recreation: games and gamingp. 133
Fishing gearp. 141
Knives and knife sheathsp. 144
Personal hygiene and sanitary arrangementsp. 153
Timepiecesp. 162
Septicaemia, Scurvy and the Spanish Pox: provisions for sickness and injury at sea
The Barber-surgeonp. 171
Medicine on boardp. 172
The contents of the Barber-surgeon's cabin, Jo Castle and Brendan Derham with Jeremy Montagu, Robin Wood Jon Hatherp. 189
The Barber-surgeon's chest and its contentsp. 189
Pottery jugs and jarsp. 190
Glass phials or bottlesp. 192
Wooden ointment canisters, with a contributionp. 193
Pewter canistersp. 199
Pewter flasksp. 199
Pewter dish, saucers and porringer or bleeding bowlp. 200
Copper-alloy mortarp. 207
Copper-alloy chafing dishp. 203
Copper-alloy bowlp. 204
Urethral syringesp. 205
Wooden bowls and dishp. 205
Wooden spatulasp. 207
Set of bandage rollsp. 207
Wooden needlep. 207
Turned wooden handles from surgical instrumentsp. 208
Wooden feeding bottlep. 212
Stiffened leather walletp. 214
Leather money pouchp. 214
Copper-alloy whistlep. 214
Miscellaneous objects in the chestp. 214
Other objects in the cabinp. 214
Shaving/grooming equipmentp. 216
Analysing the Barber-surgeon's medicines and ointmentsp. 219
Potions and possibilities: Brunschwig's recipes for plasters and unguentsp. 224
Origins of the Barber-surgeon's medicines, ointments and equipmentp. 224
'Dance and Skylark': musical instruments
Music on board the Mary Rosep. 226
Percussion instrumentsp. 230
Wind instrumentsp. 233
Bowed stringed instrumentsp. 242
Concluding commentp. 249
A Host of Shining Angels: money on board
Coins and jettonsp. 250
Scales and weightsp. 258
Discussionp. 261
Cowrie shellp. 263
Navigation and Ship's Communication
The role of the pilotp. 264
The navigation instrumentsp. 267
Whistles and watches: ship's communication Sandglassesp. 281
The ship's bellp. 284
Boatswain's callsp. 284
Routine Maintenance and 'Housework'
The ship's carpenters and their toolsp. 293
The carpenter's toolkitp. 294
The Carpenters' cabinp. 296
Tool collection on the Orlop deckp. 297
The number of carpenters on the Mary Rosep. 297
The toolsp. 299
Caulkingp. 319
Weaving and sewingp. 323
Weighing and measuringp. 330
Sharpening tools: whetstones and grinding wheelp. 336
Lighting equipmentp. 343
General tools and equipmentp. 348
Staved buckets, tubs and a funnelp. 356
Leather bucketsp. 359
Tool-holdersp. 367
Leather 'tool-holder' or possible troussep. 368
Miniature malletsp. 368
Galley equipment: bellows and ash boxesp. 369
Miscellaneous objectsp. 371
Plain and Functional: furniture on the Mary Rose
Staked-leg furniture (wedge construction)p. 377
Carpenters' work (boarded construction)p. 380
Joiners' workp. 381
Carved panelsp. 383
'Everything on Top and Nothing Handy': stowage on board
Stowage on boardp. 384
Chestsp. 387
Wooden boxes and canistersp. 397
Basketryp. 400
Sacksp. 408
Staved containers (casks)p. 409
Feeding the Crew: cooking, serving and eating
Organisation of the chapterp. 422
The assemblage: an introductionp. 423
Cooking vesselsp. 429
'Serving' vessels and utensilsp. 434
'Messing' itemsp. 440
Eating and drinking vessels and utensilsp. 448
Condiment holders and other flasksp. 458
Storage vesselsp. 460
Wooden weighing scalesp. 462
Pottery vesselsp. 462
A Bartmann jug probably from the Mary Rosep. 478
The turned wood ware from the Mary Rosep. 478
Official issue or personal possession?p. 489
Feeding the crewp. 496
Scientific Studies: Crew, Conditions and Environment
Acquiring the Data: introduction to the palaeo-environmental and scientific analyses
Underwater environmental archaeology and the Mary Rosep. 501
Sampling, processing and assessmentp. 503
Taphonomyp. 508
Sea-bed environment: processes and effectsp. 511
Analyses conductedp. 514
The Crew of the Mary Rose
Human remainsp. 516
The 'burials'p. 516
Numbers of individualsp. 519
Sexing the remainsp. 519
Age at deathp. 519
Staturep. 520
Skeletal indicesp. 520
Skeletal morphologyp. 521
Dentitionp. 523
Pathologyp. 523
Activity and occupationp. 532
Anomaliesp. 542
Conclusionsp. 543
Dentistryp. 544
Condition of the bone and teethp. 544
Matching the jaws and skullsp. 547
Comparison of the skulls with modern groupsp. 549
Tooth decay (caries)p. 552
Gum (periodontol) diseasep. 554
Other observationsp. 555
Concluding commentp. 557
The genetic affinities of the Mary Rose crew: DNA analysis of the skeletal remainsp. 557
Maternal and paternal DNA markersp. 558
Mitochondrial DNA and human historyp. 558
The present studyp. 559
DNA analysisp. 559
Resultsp. 560
Outlookp. 562
Human remains: other scientific analysesp. 563
Provisions for Board and Lodging: the animal and plant remains
Introductionp. 564
Meat and fish: the bone evidencep. 564
Origins and recovery of the animal bone assemblagep. 564
Evidence of mealsp. 567
Casked beefp. 569
Casked porkp. 574
Orlop deck pork storep. 574
Scattered pork, beef and muttonp. 577
Fishp. 577
Haunches of venisonp. 584
Other possible food species and animals presentp. 585
Size and type of food mammals and fishp. 585
The significance of the Mary Rose animal bone assemblagep. 586
Food, packing and plants: the archaeobotanical remainsp. 588
Background and introductionp. 588
The history of the plant remains studyp. 589
Condition of the plant remains, location and quantification, Wendy Smith with F.J. Greenp. 591
Foodstuffs and seasoningp. 593
Recovery of foodstuffsp. 597
Other plant material on boardp. 598
Weed/wild plant remainsp. 599
Discussion: food, packing/bedding materials and plants on boardp. 600
Overviewp. 602
'Flesh, fish, biscuit and beer': victuals for the shipp. 602
Reconstructing the menup. 603
Fish in the menup. 604
Serving and sharingp. 605
The Tudor naval diet in its historical contextp. 607
Reconstructing the provisioningp. 608
Reconstructing the victuallingp. 609
Sources of supply on the Mary Rosep. 611
The animal bone and victualling evidence; a summary discussionp. 612
Conditions on Board: pests, parasites and pollen
The ship ratp. 613
Domestic dogp. 614
Insectsp. 614
A view overboard: pollen analysisp. 617
Pollen assessment of chests and containersp. 629
Summaryp. 629
Science and the Mary Rose
Scientific studiesp. 630
Science for the Mary Rosep. 630
Analysis of animal fatsp. 631
Analysis of glue from arrowsp. 632
Chemical analysis of medicines, ointments and related itemsp. 633
Human remainsp. 641
Other sciencep. 641
The Mary Rose as a source of scientific studyp. 641
Palynological trialsp. 642
Absolute dating on the Mary Rosep. 642
DNA history and the Mary Rosep. 643
Other analysesp. 648
Looking to the Future
Concluding Comments and Avenues for Future Research
Use of space and the operation of the shipp. 653
Provisioning the shipp. 656
Welfarep. 657
The crewp. 657
Science and technologyp. 658
Spatial analysis of the shipp. 658
Closing the chapterp. 658
Chest contentsp. 661
Catalogue of textile remainsp. 671
Plant remainsp. 677
Bibliographyp. 696
Indexp. 713
List of Figures
The Mary Rose as she appears in the Anthony Roll
The structure of the ship
The principal stowage areas
Trench grids 1975-9
Trench plan and nomenclature adopted in 1979
Example of an archive record card
Model of chests on Main and Orlop decks as found
Peasant clothing as illustrated in Pieter Breughel's The Blind Leading the Blind
Distribution of clothing and fairly complete skeletons
Distribution of chests containing clothing
Weave types
Example of 2/1 weave
Example of 2/2 twill
Cap 81A0904
(top) Woollen cap of sixteenth century type; (bottom) reconstruction of one of the Mary Rose woollen caps
Cap 81A3108
Cap 81A0904
The Barber-surgeon's coif, 81A1856
Silk coif 81A4706
Artist's reconstruction of coif 81A4706 as worn
The reconstructable leather jerkins
Distribution of reconstructable leather jerkins
Jerkin 81A1963 as found
Artist's reconstruction of jerkin 81A1963
Artist's reconstruction of jerkin 81A1650
Artist's reconstruction of jerkin 82A5026
Artist's reconstruction of jerkin 81A0090/93
Museum reconstruction of jerkin 81A2592
Cloth jerkin 81A2480
Cloth jerkin 81A2888
Compass cloak
Cloth jerkin 81A4258
Cloth jerkin 81A4693
Artist's reconstruction of jerkins 81A4258 and 81A4693
Leather mittens
Detail of stitching on mitten
Cut hose fragment
Knitted 'scogger'
Construction of a welted shoe
Assembly of a welted shoe
Cross section of a welted shoe
Construction of a turnshoe (upper) and turnshoe seam variations (lower)
Construction of a randed turnshoe
Turn-welt construction
Toe types
Types of seam stitching
Types of quarters
Heel stiffeners
Toe puffs
Shoe Type 1
Types of decorative stitching on shoes
Shoe Type 2.1
Shoe Types 2.2-2.4
Shoes 82A6002/1-2
Shoe Types 3.1-3.3
Shoe 82A6001
Shoe types 3.4-3.6
Shoe types 4.1-4.2
Ankle boot quarters
Ankle boot Type 1
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