Catalogue


21st century manufacturing /
Paul Kenneth Wright.
edition
1st ed.
imprint
Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall, c2001.
description
xviii, 460 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0130956015
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall, c2001.
isbn
0130956015
catalogue key
4007411
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
Paul Kenneth Wrights is the A. Martin Berlin Professor of Mechanical Engineering, the Co-Chair of the Management of Technology Program, and the Associate Dean of Distance Learning at The University of California, Berkeley
Excerpts
Introduction or Preface
Preface This is a book that deals with today's technologies and the future ofmanufacturing.It includes details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, and a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today's production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field of manufacturing. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for themanagement of technology. WHAT WILL 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING LOOK LIKE? Within our imaginations, we probably all share a similar futuristic vision of electronic commerce, product design, and automated manufacturing. Quite certainly the Internet and the World Wide Web of the 21st century will be vastly enriched. Using virtual reality and a haptic interface, a future consumer might "reach into" a computer and feel the virtual texture of a sweater that they want to mail-order. Quite certainly, keyboards will disappear: thus, in a voice-activated conversation with a virtual salesagent, the consumer might negotiate batch size (in many cases as low as one), size, color, and price, and then arrange for overnight fabrication and immediate delivery of a fully customized product. Somewhere else, clothing designers will already have sent beautifully rendered computer graphics images to fully automated factories. These images will sit quietly--waiting to be customized to an incoming order. And when the order comes, sophisticated machine tools and robots will spring to life automatically and smoothly fabricate the product for that specific consumer of the 21st century. The words "mass customization" are being used today for such a scenario. At the beginning of the 21st century,electronic commerce, product design, and manufacturingare now global enterprises, increasingly integrated by the World Wide Web. Reliable electronic infrastructures and prompt customer delivery mechanisms mean that design services and manufacturing plants can be installed in any country. Any country? Perhaps any planet. By the 22nd century, surely someone will be exploiting as-yet-unknown minerals on a remote planet. These will be partially processed on the spot and subsequently converted to consumer products for people living throughout our solar system and even beyond. The WebsiteMars-manufacturing.commight be worth reserving now. This is a realistic vision. One that is perhaps rooted in the television documentaries over the past two decades showing welding robots on the automobile lines in Detroit. Today's exponential growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web seems to further expand our personal boundaries, with visions of access to a wide variety of services, including opportunities for online shopping and custom designing. Our natural curiosity about the future then extrapolates today's capabilities to more Hollywood-esque images of design studios and automated manufacturing systems. These might be distributed throughout our solar system and guided from the mission control deck of a "Starship Enterprise." THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT FOR 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING With this future in mind, what should be included in a college level manufacturing course? What do future students need to know? What is exciting? Some economic issues must be mentioned before answering the above questions. New constraints have been forced upon all manufacturers in the last 10 years or so. Being knowledgeable and efficient in the basic processing methods is still very important but not sufficient. Introducing new automation and robotic systems to reduce factory-floor labor costs is also important but not sufficient. Many of these new pressures on all manufacturers have been the result of international competition. At the same time, consumers have been made more aware of their choices. Here is a quote fromThe Economistmagazin
Introduction or Preface
Preface This is a book that deals with today''s technologies and the future of manufacturing.It includes details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, and a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today''s production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field of manufacturing. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for the management of technology. WHAT WILL 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING LOOK LIKE? Within our imaginations, we probably all share a similar futuristic vision of electronic commerce, product design, and automated manufacturing. Quite certainly the Internet and the World Wide Web of the 21st century will be vastly enriched. Using virtual reality and a haptic interface, a future consumer might "reach into" a computer and feel the virtual texture of a sweater that they want to mail-order. Quite certainly, keyboards will disappear: thus, in a voice-activated conversation with a virtual salesagent, the consumer might negotiate batch size (in many cases as low as one), size, color, and price, and then arrange for overnight fabrication and immediate delivery of a fully customized product. Somewhere else, clothing designers will already have sent beautifully rendered computer graphics images to fully automated factories. These images will sit quietly--waiting to be customized to an incoming order. And when the order comes, sophisticated machine tools and robots will spring to life automatically and smoothly fabricate the product for that specific consumer of the 21st century. The words "mass customization" are being used today for such a scenario. At the beginning of the 21st century, electronic commerce, product design, and manufacturingare now global enterprises, increasingly integrated by the World Wide Web. Reliable electronic infrastructures and prompt customer delivery mechanisms mean that design services and manufacturing plants can be installed in any country. Any country? Perhaps any planet. By the 22nd century, surely someone will be exploiting as-yet-unknown minerals on a remote planet. These will be partially processed on the spot and subsequently converted to consumer products for people living throughout our solar system and even beyond. The Website Mars-manufacturing.commight be worth reserving now. This is a realistic vision. One that is perhaps rooted in the television documentaries over the past two decades showing welding robots on the automobile lines in Detroit. Today''s exponential growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web seems to further expand our personal boundaries, with visions of access to a wide variety of services, including opportunities for online shopping and custom designing. Our natural curiosity about the future then extrapolates today''s capabilities to more Hollywood-esque images of design studios and automated manufacturing systems. These might be distributed throughout our solar system and guided from the mission control deck of a "Starship Enterprise." THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT FOR 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING With this future in mind, what should be included in a college level manufacturing course? What do future students need to know? What is exciting? Some economic issues must be mentioned before answering the above questions. New constraints have been forced upon all manufacturers in the last 10 years or so. Being knowledgeable and efficient in the basic processing methods is still very important but not sufficient. Introducing new automation and robotic systems to reduce factory-floor labor costs is also important but not sufficient. Many of these new pressures on all manufacturers have been the result of international competition. At the same time, consumers have been made more aware of their choices. Here is a quote from The Economistmagazine that emphasizes the power of consumer choice: Suppose one had walked into a video shop a decade ago looking for Betamax tapes. Sony''s Betamax was the better standard, almost everyone agreed: but the VHS had the marketing muscle, and customers fell into line. They wanted three walls of films to choose from, not one. In the final analysis, if a manufacturing company is going to be successful in the 21st century, being good at just "the technology" is not enough to survive. A company must be alert to change; it must offer its customers the most innovative product at the best price and the best all-around service. WHY DID I WRITE THIS BOOK? The University of Birmingham in England was like any other leading engineering school in the 1970s. We studied the "physics" of individual manufacturing processes in great depth. My thesis discovered new methods for measuring temperatures very close to a cutting tool edge and correlating them with wear patterns when machining aerospace alloys. Later as a postdoctoral student at Cambridge University, my colleagues and I made movies through transparent sapphire cutting tools and studied the friction at the interface between the tool and the flowing chip. Actually it was great fun. So, not really knowing any better, these were the topics I lectured on in my first years as a professor. However, especially after I moved to Berkeley and Silicon Valley around 1990, these one-by-one studies of individual processes (whether for metals or semiconductors) seemed an inadequate preparation for students who were going to work for Intel, Hewlett Packard, IBM, and7--more recently--dot.com startups. Today, although these students graduate and go off to manufacture the next generation of semiconductors, computers, disc drives, and all manner of peripherals and consumer products, their day-to-day careers involve designing, prototyping, and fabricating these electromechanical products rather than just refining one of the physical processes in great depth. It thus seemed that a more global view of manufacturing was needed for students going into product development and probably management. This book emerged from that perception. Thus Chapters 1 and 2 begin with a review of the history of manufacturing, its present state, the need for integration, and a summary of some basic principles. These first two chapters cover ground that can also be found in the other excellent and comprehensive texts (listed in the Bibliography of Chapter 1) that focus on the general field of manufacturing. Moving into Chapter 3, a different approach from these other texts has been adopted. Speaking generally, other manufacturing-oriented textbooks begin with a review of material properties and then mechanics (if they are targeted at mechanical engineers) or basic electronics (if they are targeted at electrical engineers). They continue with a comprehensive description of many manufacturing processes and then conclude with some manufacturing system issues that tie the whole landscape together. However, this previous approach has some limitations for today''s students. The evidence indicates that they will probably start off their careers in the technology of manufacturing, but after only a few years they will become "managers of technology." For these future managers, the word "manufacturing" will mean much more than the basic fabrication technology. It will involve market analysis, design, production planning, fabrication (including outsourcing), distribution and sales, customer service, and, finally, being agile enough to reconfigure the factory for the next product "six months down the road." Of course one could argue that this has always been the case: but now, the pace of change is so dramatic and being first to market is so critical that there is a much greater obligation for faculty to train students for this environment.
Introduction or Preface
PrefaceThis is a book that deals with today's technologies and the future ofmanufacturing.It includes details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, and a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today's production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field of manufacturing. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for themanagement of technology. WHAT WILL 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING LOOK LIKE?Within our imaginations, we probably all share a similar futuristic vision of electronic commerce, product design, and automated manufacturing.Quite certainly the Internet and the World Wide Web of the 21st century will be vastly enriched. Using virtual reality and a haptic interface, a future consumer might "reach into" a computer and feel the virtual texture of a sweater that they want to mail-order. Quite certainly, keyboards will disappear: thus, in a voice-activated conversation with a virtual salesagent, the consumer might negotiate batch size (in many cases as low as one), size, color, and price, and then arrange for overnight fabrication and immediate delivery of a fully customized product. Somewhere else, clothing designers will already have sent beautifully rendered computer graphics images to fully automated factories. These images will sit quietly--waiting to be customized to an incoming order. And when the order comes, sophisticated machine tools and robots will spring to life automatically and smoothly fabricate the product for that specific consumer of the 21st century. The words "mass customization" are being used today for such a scenario.At the beginning of the 21st century,electronic commerce, product design, and manufacturingare now global enterprises, increasingly integrated by the World Wide Web. Reliable electronic infrastructures and prompt customer delivery mechanisms mean that design services and manufacturing plants can be installed in any country. Any country? Perhaps any planet. By the 22nd century, surely someone will be exploiting as-yet-unknown minerals on a remote planet. These will be partially processed on the spot and subsequently converted to consumer products for people living throughout our solar system and even beyond. The WebsiteMars-manufacturing.commight be worth reserving now.This is a realistic vision. One that is perhaps rooted in the television documentaries over the past two decades showing welding robots on the automobile lines in Detroit. Today's exponential growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web seems to further expand our personal boundaries, with visions of access to a wide variety of services, including opportunities for online shopping and custom designing. Our natural curiosity about the future then extrapolates today's capabilities to more Hollywood-esque images of design studios and automated manufacturing systems. These might be distributed throughout our solar system and guided from the mission control deck of a "Starship Enterprise." THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT FOR 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURINGWith this future in mind, what should be included in a college level manufacturing course? What do future students need to know? What is exciting?Some economic issues must be mentioned before answering the above questions. New constraints have been forced upon all manufacturers in the last 10 years or so. Being knowledgeable and efficient in the basic processing methods is still very important but not sufficient. Introducing new automation and robotic systems to reduce factory-floor labor costs is also important but not sufficient.Many of these new pressures on all manufacturers have been the result of international competition. At the same time, consumers have been made more aware of their choices. Here is a quote fromThe Economistmagazin
First Chapter

Preface

This is a book that deals with today's technologies and the future ofmanufacturing.It includes details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, and a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today's production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field of manufacturing. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for themanagement of technology.

WHAT WILL 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING LOOK LIKE?

Within our imaginations, we probably all share a similar futuristic vision of electronic commerce, product design, and automated manufacturing.

Quite certainly the Internet and the World Wide Web of the 21st century will be vastly enriched. Using virtual reality and a haptic interface, a future consumer might "reach into" a computer and feel the virtual texture of a sweater that they want to mail-order. Quite certainly, keyboards will disappear: thus, in a voice-activated conversation with a virtual salesagent, the consumer might negotiate batch size (in many cases as low as one), size, color, and price, and then arrange for overnight fabrication and immediate delivery of a fully customized product. Somewhere else, clothing designers will already have sent beautifully rendered computer graphics images to fully automated factories. These images will sit quietly—waiting to be customized to an incoming order. And when the order comes, sophisticated machine tools and robots will spring to life automatically and smoothly fabricate the product for that specific consumer of the 21st century. The words "mass customization" are being used today for such a scenario.

At the beginning of the 21st century,electronic commerce, product design, and manufacturingare now global enterprises, increasingly integrated by the World Wide Web. Reliable electronic infrastructures and prompt customer delivery mechanisms mean that design services and manufacturing plants can be installed in any country. Any country? Perhaps any planet. By the 22nd century, surely someone will be exploiting as-yet-unknown minerals on a remote planet. These will be partially processed on the spot and subsequently converted to consumer products for people living throughout our solar system and even beyond. The WebsiteMars-manufacturing.commight be worth reserving now.

This is a realistic vision. One that is perhaps rooted in the television documentaries over the past two decades showing welding robots on the automobile lines in Detroit. Today's exponential growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web seems to further expand our personal boundaries, with visions of access to a wide variety of services, including opportunities for online shopping and custom designing. Our natural curiosity about the future then extrapolates today's capabilities to more Hollywood-esque images of design studios and automated manufacturing systems. These might be distributed throughout our solar system and guided from the mission control deck of a "Starship Enterprise."

THE ECONOMIC CONTEXT FOR 21ST CENTURY MANUFACTURING

With this future in mind, what should be included in a college level manufacturing course? What do future students need to know? What is exciting?

Some economic issues must be mentioned before answering the above questions. New constraints have been forced upon all manufacturers in the last 10 years or so. Being knowledgeable and efficient in the basic processing methods is still very important but not sufficient. Introducing new automation and robotic systems to reduce factory-floor labor costs is also important but not sufficient.

Many of these new pressures on all manufacturers have been the result of international competition. At the same time, consumers have been made more aware of their choices. Here is a quote fromThe Economistmagazine that emphasizes the power of consumer choice:

Suppose one had walked into a video shop a decade ago looking for Betamax
tapes. Sony's Betamax was the better standard, almost everyone agreed: but the
VHS had the marketing muscle, and customers fell into line. They wanted three
walls of films to choose from, not one.

In the final analysis, if a manufacturing company is going to be successful in the 21st century, being good at just "the technology" is not enough to survive. A company must be alert to change; it must offer its customers the most innovative product at the best price and the best all-around service.

WHY DID I WRITE THIS BOOK?

The University of Birmingham in England was like any other leading engineering school in the 1970s. We studied the "physics" of individual manufacturing processes in great depth. My thesis discovered new methods for measuring temperatures very close to a cutting tool edge and correlating them with wear patterns when machining aerospace alloys. Later as a postdoctoral student at Cambridge University, my colleagues and I made movies through transparent sapphire cutting tools and studied the friction at the interface between the tool and the flowing chip. Actually it was great fun. So, not really knowing any better, these were the topics I lectured on in my first years as a professor. However, especially after I moved to Berkeley and Silicon Valley around 1990, these one-by-one studies of individual processes (whether for metals or semiconductors) seemed an inadequate preparation for students who were going to work for Intel, Hewlett Packard, IBM, and7#151;more recently—dot.com startups. Today, although these students graduate and go off to manufacture the next generation of semiconductors, computers, disc drives, and all manner of peripherals and consumer products, their day-to-day careers involve designing, prototyping, and fabricating these electromechanical products rather than just refining one of the physical processes in great depth.

It thus seemed that a more global view of manufacturing was needed for students going into product development and probably management. This book emerged from that perception. Thus Chapters 1 and 2 begin with a review of the history of manufacturing, its present state, the need for integration, and a summary of some basic principles. These first two chapters cover ground that can also be found in the other excellent and comprehensive texts (listed in the Bibliography of Chapter 1) that focus on the general field of manufacturing.

Moving into Chapter 3, a different approach from these other texts has been adopted. Speaking generally, other manufacturing-oriented textbooks begin with a review of material properties and then mechanics (if they are targeted at mechanical engineers) or basic electronics (if they are targeted at electrical engineers). They continue with a comprehensive description of many manufacturing processes and then conclude with some manufacturing system issues that tie the whole landscape together. However, this previous approach has some limitations for today's students. The evidence indicates that they will probably start off their careers in the technology of manufacturing, but after only a few years they will become "managers of technology."

For these future managers, the word "manufacturing" will mean much more than the basic fabrication technology. It will involve market analysis, design, production planning, fabrication (including outsourcing), distribution and sales, customer service, and, finally, being agile enough to reconfigure the factory for the next product "six months down the road." Of course one could argue that this has always been the case: but now, the pace of change is so dramatic and being first to market is so critical that there is a much greater obligation for faculty to train students for this environment.

Therefore, the new approach beginning with Chapter 3 guides students through aproduct development cycle.The goal is to embed each fabrication process in its appropriate place in the whole activity ofmanufacturing in the large.

WHO MIGHT BENEFIT FROM THIS BOOK?

The audience that has been kept in mind is a class consisting of both engineering and business students, who are interested in a survey of manufacturing processes and their strategic consequences for business and the international economy. The course has been taught for a number of years at Berkeley, but the emphasis changes somewhat according to whether it is a junior/senior course or a first-year graduate course. The level also influences the topic chosen for the semester-long CAD/CAM project outlined in the Appendix. In the last few years the course has also been part of a management of technology program.

The analytical material is easy to digest without an extensive background in stress analysis, electronics, or biochemistry. The rationalizations for this level of treatment are that:

  • The ideas try to move beyond the basic science in each field to the strategic issues such as time-to-market.
  • On most campuses there are several subsequent graduate courses that do go into the detailed engineering issues in each domain.
  • There is a bibliography of research articles and books for the future specialist.
  • There is always the hope that other audiences, outside the academic community, might get something out of this book if it is written in a more conversational style rather than jam-packed with equations.
  • The first few chapters thus serve as a readable survey of the current economic factors before moving into Chapters 3 through 9, which have more technical content. The analysis of each basic process in chapters 3 through 9 is then presented in the context of business. While the central sections of these chapters focus on analysis, the market issues and the management context issues are discussed at the beginning and end of each chapter.

    An especially valuable way of dealing with the new approach in a semester-long class has been to place emphasis on two activities:

  • Group projects in CAD/CAM, where students design, prototype, and fabricate a new product, including its marketing plan
  • Factory tours that support the understanding of integrated manufacturing, after which students, again in groups, write up a case study on the company, its business model, and future growth
  • Chapter 10 considers future management issues in more detail. It contains more open-ended topics that often come up in class discussions. For example, we may wonder about the more frightening side of automation and technology: will these future factories create inhumane relationships between machines and society, as depicted in Carel Kapek's famous play of the 1920s,Rossum's Universal Robots?Many people in the world today may feel the same as the Luddites—an informal protest group in the late 18th century that opposed the loss of craft skills during the first industrial revolution (1770-1820). Whether locked to a word processing terminal or an assembly line, many of today's jobs are still soulless. Or perhaps worse, unemployment in several European countries is widespread. With such pressing social issues, can we really justify fully automated factories? A further concern revolves around ecological issues. Not only are these advanced manufacturing processes energy-hungry, but they can often result in dangerous chemical by-products. How does one country create manufacturing systems that are ecologically friendly and yet efficient enough to compete against those of other countries that may have less strict environmental laws?

    In summary, the "old manufacturing mentality" (certainly pre-1980) was mostly focused on getting products through machines and out the door to the loading dock. This had several weaknesses. In particular, it relied on a distant marketing organization to make the link to the customer. This is not so today, and this book focuses on "manufacturing in the large" and associated "business issues." Throughout the next century, manufacturing will be much more than machining metals, etching wafers, assembling computers, or controlling bioreactors. Manufacturing will be an integral part of an extended social enterprise. Today, it drives the "global economy"; probably in the future, it will drive a "solar system economy."

    OUTLINE: A JOURNEY ALONG THE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PATH

    The following subjects and chapters are organized as a journey along the product development path with emphasis on the fabrication techniques.

    The following figure is a summary of this approach, using one of today's cell phones or handheld computers as a metaphor for the fabrication techniques needed.

    Chapter 1: Manufacturing: art, technology, science, and business
    Chapter 2: Manufacturing analysis: some basic questions for a start-up company
    Chapter 3: Product design, computer aided design (CAD), and solid modeling
    Chapter 4: Solid freeform fabrication (SFF) and rapid prototyping
    Chapter 5: Semiconductor manufacturing
    Chapter 6: Computer manufacturing
    Chapter 7: Metal-products manufacturing
    Chapter 8: Plastics-products manufacturing and system assembly
    Chapter 9: Biotechnology
    Chapter 10: Conclusions

    Reviews
    This item was reviewed in:
    SciTech Book News, March 2001
    To find out how to look for other reviews, please see our guides to finding book reviews in the Sciences or Social Sciences and Humanities.
    Summaries
    Long Description
    For one-semester, junior/senior- and first year graduate-level courses in survey of manufacturing processes and management of technology, in departments of engineering and business. This text covers today's technologies and the future of manufacturingwith details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today's production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices, and the field of Biotechnology. It gives students a broader appreciation of the impact of manufacturing process and not just manufacturing per se. An exploration of broader issues includes: the time to market, development of a new product, launching products into the marketplace, quality control, and the impact of technology on the next generation of products.
    Main Description
    Written in a conversational style, this book explores today's technologies and the future of manufacturing through details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today's production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices, and the field of Biotechnology. It gives readers a broader appreciation of the impact of manufacturing process and not just manufacturing per se.A overview of the broader issues includes: the time to market, development of a new product, launching products into the marketplace, quality control, and the impact of technology on the next generation of products. Chapter topics cover manufacturing analysis; product design, computer aided design, and solid modeling; solid freeform fabrication and rapid prototyping; semiconductor manufacturing; computer manufacturing; metal-products manufacturing; plastics-products manufacturing and system assembly; and biotechnology.For executive education courses, appealing to both engineering and business professionals.
    Long Description
    For one-semester, junior/senior- and first year graduate-level courses in survey of manufacturing processes and management of technology, in departments of engineering and business. This text covers today's technologies and the future of manufacturing with details of the product design process, rapid prototyping, a survey of manufacturing techniques relevant to today's production of consumer electronics or electromechanical devices, and the field of Biotechnology. It gives students a broader appreciation of the impact of manufacturing process and not just manufacturing per se. an exploration of broader issues includes: the time to market, development of a new product, launching products into the marketplace, quality control, and the impact of technology on the next generation of products.
    Back Cover Copy
    This book is built around the idea that your new company will be brainstorming a new technical idea, analyzing the market, developing a business plan, creating a conceptual product, fabricating a prototype, executing detailed designs, outsourcing the various aspects of electronic and mechanical manufacturing, and then launching the product for sale. The main chapters in the book deal with these topics, with particular emphasis on manufacturing technologies. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for the management of technology. Each chapter tries to move beyond the basic science and technology in each field to strategic issues such as time-to-market. There are extensive references to research articles and books for the future specialist. These also appear on a Web site, which will be updated often. It is written in a conversational style rather than being jam-packed with equations!
    Back Cover Copy
    This book is built around the idea that your new company will be brainstorming a new technical idea, analyzing the market, developing a business plan, creating a conceptual product, fabricating a prototype, executing detailed designs, outsourcing the various aspects of electronic and mechanical manufacturing, and then launching the product for sale. The main chapters in the book deal with these topics, with particular emphasis on manufacturing technologies. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for the management of technology.Each chapter tries to move beyond the basic science and technology in each field to strategic issues such as time-to-market. There are extensive references to research articles and books for the future specialist. These also appear on a Web site, which will be updated often. It is written in a conversational style rather than being jam-packed with equations!
    Back Cover Copy
    Each chapter tries to move beyond the basic science and technology in each field to strategic issues such as time-to-market. There are extensive references to research articles and books for the future specialist. These also appear on a Web site, which will be updated often. It is written in a conversational style rather than being jam-packed with equations!
    Back Cover Copy
    This book is built around the idea that your new company will be brainstorming a new technical idea, analyzing the market, developing a business plan, creating a conceptual product, fabricating a prototype, executing detailed designs, outsourcing the various aspects of electronic and mechanical manufacturing, and then launching the product for sale. The main chapters in the book deal with these topics, with particular emphasis on manufacturing technologies. Biotechnology has been added because of the substantial future career opportunities in this field. The book also aims to provide a balanced view for the management of technology.--Each chapter tries to move beyond the basic science and technology in each field to strategic issues such as time-to-market.-There are extensive references to research articles and books for the future specialist. These also appear on a Web site, which will be updated often.-It is written in a conversational style rather than being jam-packed with equations!
    Table of Contents
    Preface
    Manufacturing: Art, Technology, Science, and Businessp. 1
    Introduction: What Is "Manufacturing"?p. 1
    The Art of Manufacturing (from 20,000 B.C. to 1770 A.D.)p. 2
    The Technology of Manufacturing: From the 1770s to the 1970sp. 5
    A Science of Manufacturing: The 1980s to the Presentp. 8
    The Business of Manufacturingp. 13
    Summaryp. 15
    Referencesp. 17
    Bibliographyp. 18
    Case Study: "The Next Bench Syndrome"p. 19
    Review Materialp. 19
    Manufacturing Analysis: Some Basic Questions for a Start-up Companyp. 21
    Introduction: www.start-up.comp. 21
    Question 1: Who Is the Customer?p. 22
    Question 2: How Much Will the Product Code to Manufacture (C)?p. 26
    Question 3: How Much Quality (Q)?p. 44
    Question 3: How Fast Can the Product Be Delivered (D)?p. 57
    Question 4: How Much Flexibility (F)?p. 62
    Management of Technologyp. 65
    Referencesp. 67
    Bibliographyp. 70
    Case Studyp. 71
    Interactive Further Workp. 79
    Review Materialp. 80
    Product Design, Computer Aided Design (Cad), and Sold Modelingp. 81
    Introductionp. 81
    Is There a Definition of Design?p. 82
    The Artistic, Creative, or Conceptual Phase of Designp. 82
    The High-Level Engineering Phase of Designp. 83
    The Analytical Phase of Designp. 86
    The Detailed Phase of Designp. 90
    Three Tutorials: An Overviewp. 90
    First Tutorial: Wire-Frame Constructionp. 91
    Solid Modeling Overviewp. 98
    Second Tutorial: Solid Modeling Using Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)p. 104
    Third Tutorial: Solid Modeling Using Destructive Solid Geometry (DSG)p. 109
    Management of Technologyp. 113
    Glossaryp. 117
    Referencesp. 119
    Bibliographyp. 121
    URLs of Interest: Commercial CAD/CAM Systems and Design Adviersp. 122
    Case Studyp. 122
    Question for Reviewp. 128
    Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) And Rapid-Prototypingp. 130
    Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) Methodsp. 130
    Stereolithography: A General Overviewp. 133
    Comparisons Between Prototyping Processesp. 149
    Casting Methods for Rapid Prototypingp. 154
    Machining Methods for Rapid Prototypingp. 158
    Management of Technologyp. 161
    Glossaryp. 163
    Referencesp. 165
    Bibliographyp. 168
    URLs of Interestp. 168
    Interactive Further Workp. 169
    Semiconductor Manufacturingp. 171
    Introductionp. 171
    Semiconductorsp. 171
    Market Adoptionp. 172
    The Microelectronics Revolutionp. 174
    Transistorsp. 176
    Designp. 182
    Semiconductor Manufacturing I: Summaryp. 184
    Semiconductor Manufacturing II: NMOSp. 185
    Layout Rulesp. 189
    More Details on Front-End Processingp. 192
    Back-End Processing Methodsp. 205
    Cost of Chip Makingp. 208
    Management of Technologyp. 213
    Glossaryp. 223
    Referencesp. 228
    Bibliographyp. 230
    URLs of Interestp. 230
    Appendix 1: Worldwide Semiconductor Market Sharep. 231
    Appendix 2: Cost Model Variables in Year 2000--Example for a 64-MB Dram (Courtesy Dataquest)p. 231
    Review Materialp. 232
    Computer Manufacturingp. 233
    Introductionp. 233
    Printed Circuit Board Manufacturingp. 235
    Printed Circuit Board Assemblyp. 239
    Hard Drive Manufacturingp. 248
    Management of Technologyp. 255
    Glossaryp. 262
    Referencesp. 264
    Case Study on Computer Manufacturingp. 267
    Metal-Products Manufacturingp. 277
    Introductionp. 277
    Basic Machining Operationsp. 280
    Controlling the Machining Processp. 289
    The Economics of Machiningp. 302
    Sheet Metal Formingp. 306
    Management of Technologyp. 315
    Glossaryp. 318
    Referencesp. 322
    Bibliographyp. 324
    URLs of Interestp. 324
    Interactive Further Work 1: The Shear Plane Anglep. 324
    Interactive Further Work 2: "Fixturenet"p. 325
    Review Questionsp. 327
    Plastic-Products Manufacturing and Final Assemblyp. 330
    Introductionp. 330
    Properties of Plasticsp. 331
    Processing of Plastics I: The Injection Molding Methodp. 334
    Processing of Plastics II: Polymer Extrusionp. 345
    Processing of Plastics III: Blow Moldingp. 346
    Processing of Plastics IV: Thermoforming of Thin Sheetsp. 346
    The Computer as a Commodity: Design for Assembly and Manufacturingp. 348
    Management of Technologyp. 456
    Glossaryp. 358
    Referencesp. 361
    Bibliographyp. 362
    URLs of Interestp. 362
    Case Study on Assemblyp. 362
    Interactive Further Workp. 364
    Review Materialp. 364
    Biotechnologyp. 366
    Introductionp. 366
    Modern Practice of an Ancient Artp. 367
    Capturing Interestp. 368
    Milestones in Biotechnology Historyp. 369
    A Bioscience Reviewp. 371
    Bioprocessesp. 379
    Genetic Engineering I: Overviewp. 384
    Genetic Engineering II: Case Study on Gene Cloning of Hemoglobinp. 390
    Bioprocess Engineeringp. 395
    Management of Technologyp. 398
    Glossaryp. 402
    Referencesp. 404
    Bibliographyp. 405
    Future Aspects of Manufacturingp. 406
    Restatement of Goals and Contextp. 406
    Management of Technologyp. 407
    From the Past to the Presentp. 408
    From the Present to the Futurep. 409
    Principles of Organizational "Layering"p. 410
    Layer I: The Learning Organizationp. 411
    Layer II: Compressing Time-to-Marketp. 413
    Layer III: Aesthetics in Designp. 414
    Layer IV: Bridging Cultures to Create Leading Edge Productsp. 415
    Conclusions to the Layering Principlep. 420
    Referencesp. 420
    Bibliographyp. 421
    A "Workbook" of Ideas for Projects, Tours, and Business Plansp. 423
    Who Wants to Be an Entrepreneur?p. 423
    Projects on Prototyping and Businessp. 424
    Project Steps and Making Progressp. 425
    Outline of a Short Business Planp. 427
    Project Selectionp. 428
    Project 1: Enhanced Mouse-Input Devicesp. 429
    Project 2: Blimp-Cams, Cart-Cams, and Telepresence Devicesp. 430
    Project 3: Miniature Radios for Consumer Electronicsp. 431
    Project 4: GPS-Based Consumer Productsp. 434
    Consulting Projectsp. 437
    Overview of Possible Factory Toursp. 439
    Rationalep. 439
    Factory-Tour Case Study Write-Upp. 440
    Suggested Format and Content for the Factory-Tour Case Studiesp. 441
    Referencesp. 443
    Bibliographyp. 444
    URLs of Interestp. 444
    Case Study: The "Palm Pilot"p. 444
    Indexp. 477
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