Catalogue


Sleep and breathing in children : a developmental approach /
edited by Gerald M. Loughlin ; John L. Carroll ; Carole L. Marcus.
imprint
New York : Marcel Dekker, c2000.
description
xxv, 867 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0824703006 (alk. paper)
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
New York : Marcel Dekker, c2000.
isbn
0824703006 (alk. paper)
catalogue key
4004847
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
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This item was reviewed in:
SciTech Book News, September 2000
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Summaries
Back Cover Copy
Presenting exhaustive research on the breathing patterns and behaviors during sleep in children, this comprehensive reference covers the physiology of sleep development and breathing rhythms, the normal and abnormal maturation of sleep from childhood through adolescence, the effects of diseases and disorders on children during sleep, and treatment and management for better sleep-seeking to improve the health of children and adults. Utilizes a developmental approach from the perspectives of biology and physiology to reevaluate the significance of sleep behavior in children's health and as a nascent point for adult diseases! Written by an international roster of nearly 60 experts who investigate the causal relationships between sleep, breathing, and health conditions, Sleep and Breathing in Children · highlights the differences in sleep-wake rhythms between children and adults · analyzes how sleep patterns may influence growth, development, behavior, and intellectual performance in the formative stages · details how to interpret the ontogenesis of neonatal and infant electroencephalograms · explores the potential of causal relationships between sleep disorders in childhood and adulthood, including possibilities for preventive measures · discusses the effects of growth and sex hormones on sleep behavior and as treatment for sleep problems · presents a basic overview of the circadian cycle in children · describes the neural structures involved in autonomic and respiratory regulation · narrates the development of peripheral and central chemoreceptor functions · details the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnoses for narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome · reveals how children with neurological, behavioral, and psychiatric disorders are affected in sleep · and much more! Highlights risk factors, symptoms, and preventive measures for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sleep Apnea With over 3700 literature references, tables, drawings, photographs, and x-rays, Sleep and Breathing in Children is an invaluable aid to pediatric pulmonologists, neurologists, psychiatrists; sleep medicine specialists; and fellows in these disciplines.
Main Description
Presenting exhaustive research on the breathing patterns and behaviors during sleep in children, this comprehensive reference covers the physiology of sleep development and breathing rhythms, the normal and abnormal maturation of sleep from childhood through adolescence, the effects of diseases and disorders on children during sleep, and treatment and management for better sleep-seeking to improve the health of children and adults. Utilizes a developmental approach from the perspectives of biology and physiology to reevaluate the significance of sleep behavior in children's health and as a nascent point for adult diseases! Written by an international roster of nearly 60 experts who investigate the causal relationships between sleep, breathing, and health conditions, Sleep and Breathing in Children highlights the differences in sleep-wake rhythms between children and adults analyzes how sleep patterns may influence growth, development, behavior, and intellectual performance in the formative stages details how to interpret the ontogenesis of neonatal and infant electroencephalograms explores the potential of causal relationships between sleep disorders in childhood and adulthood, including possibilities for preventive measures discusses the effects of growth and sex hormones on sleep behavior and as treatment for sleep problems presents a basic overview of the circadian cycle in children describes the neural structures involved in autonomic and respiratory regulation narrates the development of peripheral and central chemoreceptor functions details the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnoses for narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome reveals how children with neurological, behavioral, and psychiatric disorders are affected in sleep and much more! Highlights risk factors, symptoms, and preventive measures for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sleep Apnea With over 3700 literature references, tables, drawings, photographs, and x-rays, Sleep and Breathing in Children is an invaluable aid to pediatric pulmonologists, neurologists, psychiatrists; sleep medicine specialists; and fellows in these disciplines.
Main Description
With over 3700 literature references, tables, drawings, photographs, and x-rays, Sleep and Breathing in Children is an invaluable aid to pediatric pulmonologists, neurologists, psychiatrists; sleep medicine specialists; and fellows in these disciplines.
Main Description
Presenting exhaustive research on the breathing patterns and behaviors during sleep in children, this comprehensive reference covers the physiology of sleep development and breathing rhythms, the normal and abnormal maturation of sleep from childhood through adolescence, the effects of diseases and disorders on children during sleep, and treatment and management for better sleep-seeking to improve the health of children and adults.Utilizes a developmental approach from the perspectives of biology and physiology to reevaluate the significance of sleep behavior in children's health and as a nascent point for adult diseases!Written by an international roster of nearly 60 experts who investigate the causal relationships between sleep, breathing, and health conditions, Sleep and Breathing in Children· highlights the differences in sleep-wake rhythms between children and adults· analyzes how sleep patterns may influence growth, development, behavior, and intellectual performance in the formative stages· details how to interpret the ontogenesis of neonatal and infant electroencephalograms· explores the potential of causal relationships between sleep disorders in childhood and adulthood, including possibilities for preventive measures· discusses the effects of growth and sex hormones on sleep behavior and as treatment for sleep problems· presents a basic overview of the circadian cycle in children· describes the neural structures involved in autonomic and respiratory regulation· narrates the development of peripheral and central chemoreceptor functions· details the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and diagnoses for narcolepsy and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome· reveals how children with neurological, behavioral, and psychiatric disorders are affected in sleep· and much more!Highlights risk factors, symptoms, and preventive measures for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Sleep ApneaWith over 3700 literature references, tables, drawings, photographs, and x-rays, Sleep and Breathing in Children is an invaluable aid to pediatric pulmonologists, neurologists, psychiatrists; sleep medicine specialists; and fellows in these disciplines.
Table of Contents
Introductionp. iii
Prefacep. v
Contributorsp. vii
Sleep
Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep Developmentp. 3
Introductionp. 3
General Principles of the Development of Sleep-Wake Neural Control: Animal Studiesp. 4
Sleep Development During Early Ontogenesis: Animal Studiesp. 8
Development of Behavioral States During Human Ontogenesisp. 11
Development of Sleep-Wake Rhythmsp. 20
Development of the Homeostatic "Process S"p. 23
The Functional Role of Sleep States During Developmentp. 23
Consolidation of Memory and Learning During Sleepp. 24
The Maturational Hypothesis of Roffwarg and Coworkersp. 25
The Endogenous Genetic Programming Hypothesis Developed by Jouvetp. 26
A Contribution to the Function of REM Sleep (Personal Study)p. 26
Summaryp. 27
Referencesp. 29
Ontogeny of EEG Sleep from the Neonatal Through Infancy Periodsp. 39
Introductionp. 39
Caveats Concerning Neurophysiological Interpretation of Statep. 40
Maturation of Electrographic Patterns in the Neonatep. 41
Maturation of Noncerebral Physiological Behaviors That Define State in the Preterm Infantp. 47
Assessment of State Organization in the Full-Term Infantp. 50
Sleep Ontogenesis: State Maturation from Fetal Through Infancy Periodsp. 51
Brain Adaptation to Stress as Reflected in Sleep Reorganizationp. 57
Computer-Assisted Analysis of EEG Sleep Organizationp. 57
Summaryp. 58
Referencesp. 59
Maturation of Normal Sleep Patterns from Childhood Through Adolescencep. 63
Introductionp. 63
Consolidation of Nocturnal Sleepp. 63
Sleep Onset and Durationp. 65
Sleep State Organizationp. 67
Factors Influencing Children's Sleepp. 69
Maturation of Sleep and Cognitive Function in Childrenp. 71
Summary and Conclusionsp. 73
Referencesp. 73
Maturation of the Arousal Responsep. 79
Introductionp. 79
Characteristics and Definition of Arousalp. 80
State and Sleep History Influences on Arousalp. 81
Environmental Influences on Arousal in Infantsp. 81
Arousal Response to Sensory Stimulip. 83
Spontaneous Arousalsp. 85
Respiratory-Related Arousals and Apnea-Induced Arousalsp. 86
Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Arousal Responsesp. 87
Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Arousal Response Testingp. 92
Summaryp. 93
Referencesp. 93
Cultural Influences on Infant and Childhood Sleep Biology and the Science That Studies It: Toward a More Inclusive Paradigmp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Culture and Childhood Sleepp. 101
Conventional Western Understandings of "Healthy, Normal" Infant and Childhood Sleep: Where Did They Come from? Is One Form of Sleep as Good as Any Other?p. 107
Infant-Parent or Child Cosleeping: The "Political Third Rail"? Why So Controversial?p. 118
Conclusions, Recommendations, Afterthoughtsp. 124
Referencesp. 125
Hormonal and Metabolic Changes During Sleep in Childrenp. 131
Introductionp. 131
Potential Factors Influencing Endocrine and Metabolic Function in Pediatric Sleep Breathing Disordersp. 132
Growth Hormone, Sleep, and Sleep Apneap. 134
Sex Hormonesp. 141
Effect of Sex Hormone Therapy on Sleep Apneap. 144
Hypothyroidismp. 146
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone, Cortisol, and Cushing's Syndromep. 146
Diabetesp. 147
Neuroendocrine Changes, Obesity, and Sleep Apnea: Speculations and Future Researchp. 148
Referencesp. 151
Breathing
Breathing and "Sleep States" in the Fetus and at Birthp. 161
Introductionp. 161
Fetal Breathing Movementsp. 161
Conclusionp. 174
Referencesp. 174
Maturation of Breathing During Sleep: Infants Through Adolescentsp. 181
Introductionp. 181
Normal Respiration During Sleep: An Overviewp. 182
Ventilatory Mechanics During Sleepp. 182
Ventilation, Respiratory Pattern, and Apneasp. 186
Gas Exchange and Metabolismp. 190
Ventilatory and Arousal Responsesp. 193
Relationships Between Apnea, Bradycardia, and Desaturationp. 195
Summaryp. 196
Referencesp. 196
New Insights into Maturation of Central Components in Cardiovascular and Respiratory Controlp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Hypoxic Ventilatory Responsep. 208
Effect of Sleep on Hypoxic Responsesp. 212
Central Chemosensitivityp. 212
Effect of Sleep on CO[subscript 2] Responsesp. 213
Autonomic Development: Interactions with Breathing and Sleepp. 214
Developmental Trends in Cardiovascular and Respiratory Measuresp. 214
Neural Structures Involved in Autonomic and Respiratory Regulation: Cerebellum and Vestibular Regionsp. 215
Sleep-State Effectsp. 216
Ventral Medullary Surface Activityp. 217
Rostral Brain Influencesp. 218
Summaryp. 220
Referencesp. 221
Postnatal Development of Carotid Chemoreceptor Functionp. 231
Overviewp. 231
The Carotid Chemoreceptors in Normal Breathing Control in Childhoodp. 232
Developmental Changes in O[subscript 2] Chemoreflexesp. 240
Developmental Changes in Afferent Chemoreceptor Nerve Activityp. 241
Hypoxia Sensitivity and Responsep. 242
Mechanisms of Developmental Changesp. 245
The Carotid Chemoreceptors and Abnormal Breathing Control in Childrenp. 253
Summaryp. 254
Referencesp. 254
Upper Airway Muscle Function During Sleepp. 261
Introductionp. 261
Anatomy and Development of the Upper Airwayp. 262
Pharynxp. 263
Larynxp. 281
Summaryp. 285
Referencesp. 286
Craniofacial Development and the Airway During Sleepp. 293
Introductionp. 293
Principles of Craniofacial Growthp. 295
Craniofacial Pattern and OSAp. 298
Abnormal Patterns of Craniofacial Growthp. 301
Conclusionp. 306
Referencesp. 307
Sleep Disorders
Development of the Human Circadian Cyclep. 313
Introductionp. 313
Basic Concepts and Measurements for Development of Circadian Rhythms in Humansp. 313
Development of Circadian Sleep-Wake Rhythmsp. 317
Other Circadian Rhythms in Developmentp. 327
Summaryp. 328
Referencesp. 328
Disorders of Arousalp. 333
Clinical Manifestationsp. 334
Physiology of Sleepp. 336
Circadian and Ultradian Rhythmsp. 338
Clinical State Dissociationsp. 338
Differential Diagnosis of Nocturnal Arousalsp. 340
Referencesp. 344
A Developmental Perspective on Narcolepsyp. 347
Introductionp. 347
Epidemiologyp. 347
Pathogenesisp. 348
Clinical Features in Pre-School-Age Childrenp. 349
Clinical Features in School-Age Childrenp. 350
Symptomatic Narcolepsyp. 351
Longitudinal Studies on the Development of Narcolepsy in Childrenp. 352
Nocturnal Sleep in Childhood Narcolepsyp. 353
The Relationship Between Idiopathic Hypersomnia and Narcolepsy: A Developmental Perspectivep. 356
Diagnosisp. 357
Differential Diagnosisp. 357
Managementp. 359
Referencesp. 360
Sleep Disorders in Children with Neurological Diseasesp. 363
Introductionp. 363
Mental Retardationp. 365
Down's Syndromep. 366
Rett's Syndromep. 366
Autism, Fragile-X Syndrome, and Other Forms of Mental Retardationp. 367
Prader-Willi Syndromep. 369
Achondroplasiap. 370
Neuromuscular Diseasesp. 371
Epilepsyp. 373
Referencesp. 375
Sleep in Children with Behavioral and Psychiatric Disordersp. 385
Introductionp. 385
Sleep Alternations in Depression and Anxiety Disorders (Internalizing Disorders)p. 386
Sleep Studies in Depressionp. 387
Sleep and Anxiety Disordersp. 388
Sleep in Externalizing Disorders: (Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder)p. 389
Case Discussionp. 391
Summary and Conclusionsp. 392
Referencesp. 393
Gastroesophageal Reflux and Sleep: Does One Affect the Other?p. 397
Introductionp. 397
Effects of Sleep on Gastroesophageal Refluxp. 397
Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux on Sleepp. 399
Summaryp. 400
Referencesp. 401
Abnormal Breathing During Sleep
Breathing During Sleep in Infancyp. 405
Introductionp. 405
Definitionsp. 405
Ontogeny of Respiratory Dysrhythmiasp. 407
Polysomnographic Scoring: Confounding Factorsp. 412
A Specific Issue: The Obstructive Sleep Apneasp. 413
Factors That Influence Respiratory Dysrhythmiap. 417
Conclusionsp. 419
Referencesp. 419
Apparent Life-Threatening Events: Pathogenesis and Managementp. 423
Introductionp. 423
Relationship to Sudden Infant Deathp. 424
Definitionp. 424
Review of Evidence Basep. 425
Epidemiologyp. 426
Causesp. 426
History and Examinationp. 427
Initial Management and Investigationsp. 429
Physiologyp. 430
Multichannel Recordingsp. 432
Gastroesophageal Refluxp. 432
Psychological Assessmentp. 433
Discharge Planning and Home Monitoringp. 433
Specific Management for Recurrent ALTEp. 435
Outcomep. 436
Referencesp. 436
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Modifiable Risk Factors and the Window of Vulnerabilityp. 443
Historical Backgroundp. 443
Definition of SIDSp. 444
Incidence of SIDS and the Effects of Risk-Reduction Campaignsp. 444
The Epidemiological Features of SIDS and Other Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Infancyp. 445
Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors for SIDSp. 446
Modifiable Risk Factors, Developmental Physiology, and the Effects of Patterns of Infant Carep. 447
Summaryp. 457
Referencesp. 457
Environmental Stressors and Sudden Unexpected Infant Deathp. 465
Introductionp. 465
Air Pollution and Environmental Stressors Arising Outside the Sleep Environmentp. 466
Sleep Position and Environmental Stressorsp. 468
Prone Sleep and Toxins Arising from Beds and Bedroomsp. 471
How Thermal Stress Might Cause Sudden Unexpected Deathp. 471
Selected Questions for Study About the Link Between Thermal Stress and Sudden Infant Deathp. 479
Physiological Studies of Rebreathing Stress for Prone Infants Imposed by the Sleep Microenvironmentp. 480
Summary and Conclusionsp. 487
Referencesp. 488
Breathing and Sleep in Preterm Infantsp. 495
Introductionp. 495
Historyp. 496
Classification of Sleep in Preterm Infantsp. 497
Anatomic and Functional Limitations of the Respiratory System in Preterm Infantsp. 497
Breathing Pattern at Restp. 501
Periodic Breathing and Apneap. 501
Sighsp. 506
Ventilationp. 507
The Response to CO[subscript 2]p. 507
The Response to Low O[subscript 2]p. 509
The Overall Clinical Implicationsp. 512
Conclusionp. 514
Referencesp. 515
Syndromes Affecting Respiratory Control During Sleepp. 525
Introductionp. 525
Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndromep. 526
Myelomeningocele with Arnold-Chiari Malformationp. 532
Prader-Willi Syndromep. 535
Achondroplasia and Other Skeletal Dysplasiasp. 537
Leigh's Diseasep. 538
Joubert Syndromep. 538
Acquired Central Hypoventilation Syndromesp. 539
Obesity Hypoventilation Syndromep. 539
Management of Respiratory Failure in Children with Respiratory Control Disordersp. 541
Summaryp. 547
Referencesp. 548
Epidemiology and Natural History of Snoring and Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Childrenp. 555
Introductionp. 555
Historical Reviewp. 555
Diagnostic Methods and Definitionsp. 556
Snoringp. 557
Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing Determined by Sleep Monitoringp. 563
Consequences of Snoring in the General Populationp. 568
Conclusionsp. 572
Referencesp. 572
Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Childhood: Clinical Featuresp. 575
Introductionp. 575
Epidemiologyp. 577
Clinical Featuresp. 577
Coursep. 591
High-Risk Groups for Childhood OSASp. 591
Mortalityp. 593
Referencesp. 594
Pathophysiology of OSAS in Childrenp. 601
Introductionp. 601
Normal Changes in Upper Airway Function with Sleepp. 601
The Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndromep. 602
Etiological Factors for Childhood OSASp. 609
Link Between Childhood and Adult OSASp. 617
Conclusionp. 618
Referencesp. 618
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in Children: Diagnosis and Managementp. 625
Introductionp. 625
Diagnostic Approachp. 627
Use of Clinical Scoresp. 630
Laboratory Evaluationp. 630
Screening Studies for OSASp. 632
Diagnostic Studiesp. 635
Management of OSAS in Childrenp. 642
An Approach to Diagnosis and Managementp. 645
Referencesp. 645
Neuropsychological Consequences of Disordered Breathing During Sleepp. 651
Introductionp. 651
Neurological and Behavioral Symptoms Associated with Sleep Disordered Breathingp. 652
Nocturnal Symptomsp. 655
Laboratory Testingp. 655
Diagnosisp. 657
Conclusionp. 658
Referencesp. 659
Effects of Breathing During Sleep in Children with Chronic Lung Diseasep. 661
Introductionp. 661
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasiap. 662
Asthmap. 668
Cystic Fibrosisp. 675
Other Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseasesp. 680
Chronic Interstitial Lung Diseasesp. 680
Conclusionp. 681
Referencesp. 681
Sleep and Breathing in Children with Neuromuscular Diseasep. 691
Introductionp. 691
Overview and Risk Factors for Sleep-Related Respiratory Muscle Dysfunctionp. 691
Progression of Sleep-Related Breathing Abnormalities in Neuromuscular Diseasep. 697
Respiratory Dysfunction in Specific Neuromuscular Conditionsp. 699
Assessmentp. 720
Treatmentp. 723
Summaryp. 725
Referencesp. 725
Genetic Syndromes Affecting Breathing During Sleepp. 737
Introductionp. 737
Micrognathiap. 738
Midfacial Hypoplasiap. 740
Abnormal Neuromuscular Control of the Upper Airwayp. 742
Multifactorial and Miscellaneousp. 746
Summaryp. 750
Referencesp. 750
Sickle Cell Disease and Breathing During Sleepp. 755
Introductionp. 755
Measurements of Oxygenationp. 756
Nocturnal Hypoxemiap. 757
Obstructive Sleep Apneap. 758
Interventionsp. 760
Future Directionsp. 761
Referencesp. 761
Technological Advances in Diagnosis and Management
Establishing and Running a Pediatric Sleep Laboratoryp. 767
Introductionp. 767
Mission Statementp. 768
Types of Studiesp. 768
Practical Considerations for Pediatric Polysomnographyp. 771
Implementation and Evaluation of Treatmentp. 772
Spacep. 773
Personnelp. 773
Coordinating Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Infants and Childrenp. 778
Communicationp. 778
Referencesp. 780
Home Monitoring of Sleep and Breathing in Childrenp. 783
Introductionp. 783
Types of Studiesp. 784
Questionnaire or Historyp. 784
Actigraphyp. 785
Pulse Oximetryp. 785
Audio and Video Recordingsp. 787
Multichannel Recordingsp. 789
The McGill Cardiorespiratory Video Systemp. 790
Advantages and Disadvantages of Home Studiesp. 791
Conclusionsp. 793
Referencesp. 793
Ventilator Management of Abnormal Breathing During Sleep: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure and Nocturnal Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilationp. 797
Introductionp. 797
Technologyp. 797
Mode of Actionp. 798
NIPPV Compared to Other Modes of Assisted Ventilationp. 798
Indications for NIPPVp. 799
Practical Aspects of NIPPVp. 801
Prognosisp. 808
Conclusionp. 808
Referencesp. 809
Diaphragm Pacing in Infancy and Childhoodp. 813
Historic Backgroundp. 813
Technologyp. 814
World Experience with Diaphragm Pacingp. 814
Pacer Experience in Infants and Childrenp. 815
Current Approach to Pacingp. 816
Long-Term Clinical Statusp. 820
Clinical Lessons from Diaphragm Pacingp. 821
Advantages and Disadvantages of Diaphragm Pacingp. 821
Recommendation for Pacer Improvement and Future Goalsp. 822
Conclusionp. 822
Referencesp. 822
Standards and Indications for Cardiopulmonary Sleep Studies in Childrenp. 825
Indexp. 857
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