Elements of environmental engineering : thermodynamics and kinetics /
K.T. Valsaraj.
2nd ed.
Boca Raton, FL : Lewis, c2000.
679 p. : ill.
1566703972 (alk. paper)
More Details
Boca Raton, FL : Lewis, c2000.
1566703972 (alk. paper)
catalogue key
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
Dr. Kalliat T. Valsaraj is the Ike East Professor of Chemical Engineering in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Full Text Reviews
Appeared in Choice on 2000-11-01:
Valsaraj (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge) offers six chapters jam-packed with all the thermodynamics and kinetics that an environmental engineer needs. This book is a heavily mathematical compilation of basic chemical engineering topics (thermodynamics, chemical thermodynamics, kinetics, reactor design, and mass transfer) appropriate for the environmental field. Its concise presentation of environment-specific fundamental material is enhanced by a huge set of related problems at the end of each chapter. Chapter 1 aptly presents the usual challenges to the environmental engineer with pinpoint accuracy; chapters 2 and 3 discuss thermodynamic concepts; chapter 4 details specific environmental applications. Chapters 5 and 6 similarly offer kinetic/mass transfer concepts and corresponding applications. This book can supply an undergraduate or graduate program with a very busy year's worth of study, as an instructor can easily decide which depth level to teach. The challenge to the teaching of this material in an undergraduate program will be the need to familiarize the student with basic environmental concepts and organic nomenclature prior to use of this book; a well thought out introductory environmental engineering course could easily erase that problem. Upper-division undergraduate and graduate students. B. Bero; Northern Arizona University
This item was reviewed in:
SciTech Book News, September 2000
Choice, November 2000
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Unpaid Annotation
The broad, interdisciplinary nature of environmental education means that it is impossible to incorporate all of the related specialties -- like applied chemistry -- within the time constraints of a four-year degree. Elements of Environmental Engineering: Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Second Edition fills the void by providing a sound basis of chemical thermodynamics and reaction kinetics. This forms the foundation engineers need to successfully meet challenges like process design for waste separation, environmental transport modeling, and risk assessment. With new examples and practice problems, Elements of Environmental Engineering: Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Second Edition is an ideal guide or self-study tool for the practicing engineer.
Table of Contents
List of Notations
Energy Use, Population Growth, and Pollutionp. 2
Environmental Standards and Criteriap. 4
The Discipline of Environmental Engineeringp. 6
Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics in Environmental Engineeringp. 8
Applications of Thermodynamics and Kineticsp. 9
Equilibrium Partitioningp. 9
Fate and Transport Modelingp. 10
Design of Separation Processesp. 12
Units and Dimensionsp. 15
Structure of the Bookp. 15
Referencesp. 18
Concepts from Classical Thermodynamics
Equilibriump. 20
Fundamental Laws of Thermodynamicsp. 21
Zeroth Lawp. 21
First Lawp. 22
Second Lawp. 22
Third Lawp. 23
Enthalpy, Heat Capacity, and Standard Statesp. 26
Standard Heats of Reaction, Formation, and Combustionp. 27
Combination of First and Second Lawsp. 28
Gibbs Free Energy and Equilibriump. 29
Free Energy Variation with Temperature and Pressurep. 31
Concept of Maximum Workp. 34
Minimum Work Required for Separationp. 35
Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Potentialp. 35
Gibbs-Duhem Relationship for a Single Phasep. 37
Standard States for Chemical Potentialp. 38
Thermodynamics of Surfaces and Colloidal Systemsp. 40
Surface Tensionp. 40
Curved Interfaces and Young-Laplace Equationp. 42
Surface Thickness and Gibbs Dividing Surfacep. 43
Surface Thermodynamic Propertiesp. 44
Gibbs Adsorption Equationp. 45
Problemsp. 47
Referencesp. 53
Multicomponent Equilibrium Thermodynamics Concepts
Ideal and Nonideal Fluidsp. 57
Concentration Units in Environmental Engineeringp. 58
Dilute Solution Definitionp. 59
Fugacityp. 61
Fugacity of Gases and Fugacity Coefficientp. 61
Fugacity of Liquids and Solidsp. 61
Activities of Solutes and Activity Coefficientsp. 63
Nonelectrolytesp. 63
Electrolytesp. 65
Ionic Strength and Activity Coefficientsp. 67
Fugacity and Environmental Modelsp. 70
Fugacity of Mixturesp. 74
Gas Mixturesp. 74
Liquid and Solid Mixturesp. 75
Ideal Solutions, Dilute Solutionsp. 76
Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium: Henry's and Raoult's Lawsp. 76
Henry's Lawp. 76
Raoult's Lawp. 78
Vapor Pressure of Organic Compounds, Clausius-Clapeyron Equationp. 81
Vapor Pressure over Curved Surfacesp. 87
Liquid-Liquid Equilibriump. 91
Nernst Law of Partitioningp. 91
Octanol-Water Partition Constantp. 93
Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFERs)p. 99
Nonideal Solutionsp. 101
Activity Coefficient for Nonideal Systemsp. 101
Excess Functions and Activity Coefficientsp. 101
Activity Coefficient and Solubilityp. 102
Correlations with Hydrophobicityp. 107
Special Structural Features of Waterp. 107
Hydrophobic Hydration of Nonpolar Solutesp. 110
Hydrophobic Interactions Between Solutesp. 115
Hydrophilic Interactions for Solutes in Waterp. 115
Electrolytes in Aqueous Solutionsp. 116
Molecular Theories of Solubility - an Overviewp. 120
Solubility of Organic Mixtures in Waterp. 123
Structure-Activity Relationships and Activity Coefficients in Waterp. 130
Solute Cavity Area, Molecular Area, and Molecular Volumep. 130
Correlation with Octanol-Water Partition Constantp. 136
Correlation with Normal Boiling Pointp. 139
Theoretical and Semiempirical Approaches to Aqueous Solubility Predictionp. 140
First Generation Group Contribution Methodsp. 140
Excess Gibbs Free Energy Modelsp. 142
Second-Generation Group Contribution Methods: The UNIFAC Methodp. 142
Solubility of Inorganic Compounds in Waterp. 147
Adsorption on Surfaces and Interfacesp. 148
Gibbs Equation for Nonionic and Ionic Systemsp. 148
Equilibrium Adsorption Isotherms at Interfacesp. 150
Adsorption at Charged Surfacesp. 165
Problemsp. 170
Referencesp. 187
Applications of Thermodynamics
Air-Water Phase Equilibriump. 193
Air-Water Partitioning and Henry's Lawp. 197
Estimation of Henry's Constant from Group Contributionsp. 197
Experimental Determination of Henry's Law Constantsp. 199
Discrepancies in Experimental Valuesp. 199
Temperature Dependence of K[subscript aw]p. 200
Effects of Cosolvents on Air-Water Partition Constantsp. 201
Effects of Colloids and Particulatesp. 204
Effects of pH and Ionizationp. 209
Air-Water Interfacial Adsorptionp. 216
Atmospheric Chemistryp. 222
Partitioning into Atmospheric Moisture (Cloud, Rain, and Fog)p. 226
Wet Deposition of Vapor Speciesp. 226
Wet Deposition of Aerosol-Bound Fractionp. 227
Dry Deposition of Gases to Waterp. 233
Fluxes of Gases in the Atmospherep. 234
Thermodynamics of Aqueous Droplets in the Atmospherep. 236
Thermodynamics of Aerosols (Nucleation)p. 240
Air-Water Equilibrium in Waste Treatment Systemsp. 242
Surface Impoundmentsp. 242
Air Stripping Operationsp. 244
Aerationp. 247
Soil-Water and Soil-Air Equilibriump. 248
Partitioning into Soils and Sediments from Waterp. 249
Charged Surfaces in Water and Adsorption of Metal Ionsp. 252
Adsorption of Amphiphiles on Mineralsp. 258
Adsorption of Neutral Molecules on Soils and Sedimentsp. 264
Mechanism of Sorption and K[subscript oc] - K[subscript ow] Relationshipp. 269
Effect of Colloids in the Aqueous Phase on K[subscript oc]p. 272
Effects of Cosolutes on K[subscript oc]p. 274
Sorbent Concentration Effect on K[subscript sw]p. 275
Biota-Water Partition Constant (Bioconcentration Factor)p. 279
Particulate-Air Partitioning in Aerosols and Soilsp. 282
Air-Aerosol Partition Constantp. 282
Soil-Air Partition Constantsp. 286
Air-Vegetation Partition Constantp. 290
Colloids in Sediments and Groundwaterp. 292
Colloids in the Sediment-Water Environmentp. 292
Colloid-Facilitated Transport from Sediments and Groundwaterp. 294
Colloids in Waste Treatmentp. 297
Coagulation and Flocculationp. 297
Solid-Water Interfaces in Flotationp. 302
Adsorption on Activated Carbon, Metal Oxides, and Ion-Exchange Resinsp. 305
Activated Carbon Treatment of Wastewatersp. 305
Ion-Exchange Resinsp. 309
Nonaqueous-Phase Liquids in Contaminated Aquifersp. 315
Equilibrium Size and Shape of Residual NAPL Globulesp. 315
In Situ Surfactant Flushing and Micelle-Water Partitioningp. 317
Problemsp. 319
Referencesp. 330
Concepts from Chemical Reaction Kinetics
Progress Toward Equilibrium in a Chemical Reactionp. 339
Reaction Rate, Order, and Rate Constantp. 342
Simple Kinetic Rate Lawsp. 344
Isolation Methodp. 344
Initial Rate Methodp. 345
Integrated Rate Lawsp. 345
Reversible Reactionsp. 347
Series Reactions, Steady State Approximationp. 352
Activation Energyp. 358
Activated Complex Theory (ACT)p. 361
Effect of Solvent on Reaction Ratesp. 365
Linear Free Energy Relationships (LFERs)p. 367
Reaction Mechanismsp. 371
Chain Reactionsp. 371
Reactions in Electrolyte Solutionsp. 375
Effects of Ionic Strength on Rate Constantsp. 375
Association-Dissociation Reactionsp. 377
Solubility Product, Solubility Reactionsp. 384
Catalysis of Environmental Reactionsp. 388
General Mechanisms and Rate Expressions for Catalysed Reactionsp. 389
Homogeneous Catalysis (Acid-Base Catalysis)p. 391
Heterogeneous Catalysis (Surface Reactions)p. 397
General Mechanisms of Surface Catalysisp. 397
Autocatalysis in Environmental Reactionsp. 404
Redox Reactions in Environmental Systemsp. 406
Rates of Redox Reactionsp. 414
Problemsp. 418
Referencesp. 432
Applications of Chemical Kinetics and Mass Transfer Theory
Types of Reactorsp. 437
Ideal Reactorsp. 437
A Batch Reactorp. 439
A Continuous-Flow Stirred Tank Reactorp. 440
Plug Flow or Tubular Reactorp. 441
Design Equations for CSTR and PFRp. 442
Relationship between Steady State and Equilibrium for a CSTRp. 448
Nonideal Reactorsp. 449
Dispersion Modelp. 449
Tanks-in-Series Modelp. 451
Dispersion and Reactionp. 453
Reaction in a Heterogeneous Mediump. 454
Kinetics and Transport at Fluid-Fluid Interfacesp. 456
Diffusion and Reaction in a Porous Mediump. 459
Sorption Kinetics in a Natural Porous Mediump. 464
The Water Environmentp. 472
Fate and Transportp. 472
Chemicals in Lakes and Oceansp. 472
Chemicals in Surface Watersp. 476
Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Natural Streamsp. 478
Water Pollution Controlp. 483
Air Stripping in Aeration Basinsp. 483
Oxidation Reactorp. 488
Photochemical Reactionsp. 494
Photochemical Reactions and Wastewater Treatmentp. 501
Photochemical Reactions in Natural Watersp. 502
Packed Tower Air Strippingp. 504
The Air Environmentp. 509
Fate and Transport Modelsp. 509
Box Modelsp. 509
Air Dispersion (Gaussian) Modelsp. 516
Meteorology and Topographyp. 516
Emissions from Stacks and Continuous Point Sourcesp. 517
Estimation of Emission rate, Q[subscript s] for Different Scenariosp. 521
Emission From Line Sourcesp. 521
Emission From a Short Pulsep. 522
Air Pollution Controlp. 523
Particulate Control Devicesp. 523
Gravity Settlerp. 523
Cyclone Collectorp. 527
Electrostatic Precipitatorp. 528
Control of Gases and Vaporsp. 530
Adsorptionp. 531
Absorptionp. 534
Thermal Destructionp. 535
Atmospheric Processesp. 538
Reactions in Aerosols and Aqueous Droplets -- Acid Rainp. 538
Global Warming, Greenhouse Gasesp. 544
Ozone in the Stratosphere and Tropospherep. 552
Soil and Sediment Environmentsp. 563
Fate and Transport Modelingp. 563
Transport in Groundwaterp. 564
Solubilization of Gangliap. 564
Transport of the Dissolved Contaminant in Groundwaterp. 566
Sediment-Water Exchange of Chemicalsp. 571
Soil-Air Exchange of Chemicalsp. 573
Soil and Groundwater Treatmentp. 576
Pump-and-Treat for NAPL Removal from Groundwaterp. 577
In Situ Soil Vapor Stripping in the Vadose Zonep. 581
In Situ Bioremediation for Contaminated Soils and Groundwaterp. 583
Incineration for ex Situ Treatment of Soils and Solid Wastep. 584
Applications in Environmental Bioengineeringp. 585
Michaelis-Menten and Monod Kineticsp. 589
Enzyme Reactors; Immobilized Enzyme Reactorp. 597
Batch Reactorp. 597
Plug Flow Enzyme Reactorp. 598
Continuous Stirred Tank Enzyme Reactorp. 600
Immobilized Enzyme or Cell Reactorp. 604
In Situ Subsoil Bioremediationp. 609
Kinetics of Bioaccumulation of Chemicals in the Aquatic Food Chainp. 611
Problemsp. 616
Referencesp. 642
Appendix Ap. 647
Appendix Bp. 665
Answers to Selected Problemsp. 671
Indexp. 673
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