Catalogue


Communication in organizations /
Everett M. Rogers and Rekha Agarwala Rogers.
imprint
New York : Free Press, c1976.
description
xiii, 209 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0029267102
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
New York : Free Press, c1976.
isbn
0029267102
general note
Includes indexes.
catalogue key
3024100
 
Bibliography: p. 185-200.
A Look Inside
Excerpts
Excerpt from Book
Chapter 1 The Nature of Organizational Communication "In any exhaustive theory of organization, communication would occupy a central place."Chester I. Barnard"All human action takes place in a cross-fire of information."Torsten Hagerstrand"Communication is a good deal more talked about than understood."Lee Thayer The purpose of this book is to familiarize the reader with the main concepts, viewpoints, and research findings and applications in the field of organizational communication. Our focus in this book is on the ways in which organizational structure affects communication behavior, and vice. versa.We discuss, for example, how structure can restrict communication flows, leading to problems of distortion and omission, and how solutions to these difficulties can in turn lead to information overload. The existence of informal communication behavior, typified by rumors, and of informal communication roles, such as liaisons and gatekeepers in communication networks, suggests that the formal structure in an organization far from completely determines communication behavior. Furthermore, such approaches as "office landscaping" imply that communication behavior can occasionally determine organizational structure. Instead of viewing an organization as a completely stable structure, we show how external communication across its boundary with the environment is essential to its functioning, and especially to the innovation process. Our use of open system theory directs us to emphasize information exchange with the organization's environment, as well as communication flows within the organization.So this book is about communication, but about a rather special kind of communication, viz., that occurring in highly structured settings. Generally, communication scholars have avoided studying the way in which structure affects human interaction. Perusal of communication research literature, at least prior to the 1970s, would almost lead one to assume that social structure does not affect human communication. For example, communication theorists who postulated the S-M-C-R (Source-Message-Channel-Receiver) model and similar models of communication did not accord much importance to the nature of the social relationships between source and receiver. Perhaps this shortcoming stems from the largely psychological backgrounds of early communication scientists, who emphasized intraindividual aspects of human communication in their choice of concepts, units of analysis, and paradigms. In any case, most communication research has been conducted in a way that artificially "destructures" human behavior. The present volume seeks to correct this bias by summarizing what is presently known about communication in organizations.The research approach of communication scientists in the past has seriously underestimated the impact of social structure on communication behavior. Social structure has often been regarded as an extraneous, bothersome influence in studies of communication behavior, and structural variables have simply been ignored. For example, in most laboratory experiments relative strangers are brought together in a transitory and artificial setting for a brief encounter. The full impact of the social relationships among participants in more real-life communication exchanges is hardly replicated. The effects of social structure on communication that were observed in laboratory studies need to be tested in organizational settings before they can be accepted as appropriate principles of organizational communication (Chapter 5).In survey research on communication, the role of structure is usually depreciated by the research methods used. The individual is usually the unit of response and is often the unit of analysis (Coleman 1958). Such an atomistic approach ignores the relational nature of human behavior. Most communication is reciprocal
First Chapter
Chapter 1 The Nature of Organizational Communication "In any exhaustive theory of organization, communication would occupy a central place."Chester I. Barnard"All human action takes place in a cross-fire of information."Torsten Hagerstrand"Communication is a good deal more talked about than understood."Lee Thayer The purpose of this book is to familiarize the reader with the main concepts, viewpoints, and research findings and applications in the field of organizational communication. Our focus in this book is on the ways in which organizational structure affects communication behavior, and vice. versa.We discuss, for example, how structure can restrict communication flows, leading to problems of distortion and omission, and how solutions to these difficulties can in turn lead to information overload. The existence of informal communication behavior, typified by rumors, and of informal communication roles, such as liaisons and gatekeepers in communication networks, suggests that the formal structure in an organization far from completely determines communication behavior. Furthermore, such approaches as "office landscaping" imply that communication behavior can occasionally determine organizational structure. Instead of viewing an organization as a completely stable structure, we show how external communication across its boundary with the environment is essential to its functioning, and especially to the innovation process. Our use of open system theory directs us to emphasize information exchange with the organization's environment, as well as communication flows within the organization.So this book is about communication, but about a rather special kind of communication, viz., that occurring in highly structured settings. Generally, communication scholars have avoided studying the way in which structure affects human interaction. Perusal of communication research literature, at least prior to the 1970s, would almost lead one to assume that social structure does not affect human communication. For example, communication theorists who postulated the S-M-C-R (Source-Message-Channel-Receiver) model and similar models of communication did not accord much importance to the nature of the social relationships between source and receiver. Perhaps this shortcoming stems from the largely psychological backgrounds of early communication scientists, who emphasized intraindividual aspects of human communication in their choice of concepts, units of analysis, and paradigms. In any case, most communication research has been conducted in a way that artificially "destructures" human behavior. The present volume seeks to correct this bias by summarizing what is presently known about communication in organizations.The research approach of communication scientists in the past has seriously underestimated the impact of social structure on communication behavior. Social structure has often been regarded as an extraneous, bothersome influence in studies of communication behavior, and structural variables have simply been ignored. For example, in most laboratory experiments relative strangers are brought together in a transitory and artificial setting for a brief encounter. The full impact of the social relationships among participants in more real-life communication exchanges is hardly replicated. The effects of social structure on communication that were observed in laboratory studies need to be tested in organizational settings before they can be accepted as appropriate principles of organizational communication (Chapter 5).In survey research on communication, the role of structure is usually depreciated by the research methods used. The individual is usually the unit of response and is often the unit of analysis (Coleman 1958). Such an atomistic approach ignores the relational nature of human behavior. Most communication is reciprocal
Summaries
Unpaid Annotation
Effective advice on communication at every level in an organization, by the author of "Communications Strategies for Family Planning".
Table of Contents
Preface
The Nature of Organizational Communication
The Rise and Fall of the Pruitt-Igoe Project
The Importance of Organizational Communication
The Hospital as an Information System
Studying Communication in Organizations
Main Elements in the Communication Process
The Nature of Communication Research
The Component Approach in Past Communication Research
From Linear Models to a Systems Approach
Biases in Past Communication Research
Research on Communication in Organizations
Toward Network Analysis
Summary
Three Schools of Organizational Behavior
Revolutionary Paradigms and Invisible Colleges
Scientific Management School
Critical Reactions to Taylorism
Taylorism and Communication
Human Relations School
Illumination at the Hawthorne Plant
Enter the Professors
Rediscovering Informal Communication
Changing Organizational Behavior
Through the Human Relations Approach
The Scanlon Plan: An Operationalization o[ the Human Relations Approach
Criticisms of the Hawthorne Studies
The Contribution of Chester Barnard
Other Human Relationists: The Human Resources Subschool
From S-M-C-R to R-M-C-S"The Plant Is Closing
The Plant Is Closing"The Systems School
General Systems Theory
The Unfulfilled Potential of Systems-Oriented Research in Organizations
An Open System Approach
Looking Outward
Tile Internal Function of Communication
The "Technology" Subschool
The Systems View of Communication
Summary
Open System Theory and Organizational Environments
Environment to the Fore
What Is Environment?
Research on Organizational Environments
Information and Uncertainty
Inputs and Outputs
Measuring Environmental Dimensions
Boundary-Spanning Cosmopolites
Coping with the Environment: The TVA and Cooptation
The Environment and Organizational
Innovation
Perceived Environment and Innovation in Agency A and B
Organizational Climates
Summary
The Effect of Organizational Structure on Communication Behavior
What Is Structure?
The Organization Chart and the Formal Structure of an Organization
Rumors and the Informal Communication Structure
Bureaucracy
The Black Hole of Calcutta as a Communication Breakdown in a Bureaucracy
Mao Tse-tung's Antibureaucracy in China
Structure's Effect on Communication
Restricted Flows and Information Overload
Distortion at My LaiDistortion and Omission
Horizontal and Vertical Flows"Sound Of" at the Bank Red Hammers in Peking
Formal and Informal Communication Flows
Informal Communication Roles
Communication Behavior as a Determinant of Organizational Structure
BĂ„rolandschaft: Offices Without Walls
Summary
Communication Networks in Organizations
Why Are Networks Important?
Formal Structure and Communication Networks
System Effects"It's a Small World!"Personal Networks: Radial and Interlocking
Putting Structure Back into Organizational Communication
Laboratory Experiments on Small Group Networks
Background of the Small Groups Studies
Circle, Wheel, and Chain
Criticisms of the Small Groups Studies
Network Analysis
Background on Network Analysis in Organizations
Network Analysis Procedures
An Illustration of Communication Network Analysis in an Organization
Individual Communication Roles in Organizations
Gatekeepers
Liaisons
Opinion Leaders
Cosmopolites
Communication Structural Variables
Personal Communication Networks
Clique-Level Analysis
System-Level AnalysisSummary
Innovation In Organizations
Innovation and Innovativeness
Innovation and Change
The Process of Innovation in Organizations
Innovation as a Stepwise Process
Performance Gaps and Problem Definition
Knowledg
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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