Catalogue


Decades of crisis : Central and Eastern Europe before World War II /
Ivan T. Berend.
imprint
Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press, c1998.
description
xxiv, 437 p., [56] p. of plates : ill., maps, ports. ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0520206177 (alk. paper)
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Berkeley, Calif. : University of California Press, c1998.
isbn
0520206177 (alk. paper)
catalogue key
2099975
 
Includes bibliographical references (p. 407-422) and index.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
Ivan T. Berend, Professor of History at the University of California, Los Angeles, is former President of the International Committee of Historical Sciences and former President of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1995-2000). He has published widely on the economy and culture of Central and Eastern Europe.
Excerpts
Flap Copy
"Like Eric Hobsbawm's masterful histories of economic, social, and cultural change in Europe, Berend's book covers a vast variety of changes, and convincingly shows that they were all related."--Daniel Chirot, author of Modern Tyrants "A dozen fermenting societies floundering through choppy times are brilliantly brought together in Ivan Berend's informed, lucid and readable account of Central and Eastern Europe before World War II. Berend has achieved a splendid synthesis not to be missed by specialists, yet accessible to the general reader."--Eugen Weber, University of California, Los Angeles "Berend's work will find an eager audience of European historians, specialists in Central and Eastern Europe, and educated readers among the general population."--David F. Good, author of The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 1750-1914
Flap Copy
"Like Eric Hobsbawm's masterful histories of economic, social, and cultural change in Europe, Berend's book covers a vast variety of changes, and convincingly shows that they were all related."--Daniel Chirot, author ofModern Tyrants "A dozen fermenting societies floundering through choppy times are brilliantly brought together in Ivan Berend's informed, lucid and readable account of Central and Eastern Europe before World War II. Berend has achieved a splendid synthesis not to be missed by specialists, yet accessible to the general reader."--Eugen Weber, University of California, Los Angeles "Berend's work will find an eager audience of European historians, specialists in Central and Eastern Europe, and educated readers among the general population."--David F. Good, author ofThe Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 1750-1914
Full Text Reviews
Appeared in Choice on 1998-11:
In this work an eminent and prolific scholar of modern Hungarian and East Central European economic history offers a knowledgeable distillation of years of reading and research. At a time when so many trace the region's problems to WW II, the author performs a valuable service by focusing instead on WW I and the interwar period. Like so many Hungarians and most scholars of East Central Europe, Berend projects a certain dismay at the disaggregation of the multiethnic Habsburg, Ottoman, and Tsarist empires. He points persuasively to the slower pace of "modernization": principally rural societies with lagging industrialization; landless peasants governed by an aristocratic-bourgeois condominium; the prevalence of ethnically alien minority elites, such as Jews and Germans; and messy ethnic demographics that prevented the formation of homogeneous nation-states. The book's encyclopedic approach, proclivity for statistics, and discrete treatment of so many different countries will likely limit its appeal for the casual reader. Nonetheless, it is accessible to an educated (or educable) audience, thanks largely to a text that is written in an unpretentious style, with 14 chapters that are further broken down into 105 subsections. All levels. C. Ingrao; Purdue University
Reviews
This item was reviewed in:
Kirkus Reviews,
Choice, November 1998
To find out how to look for other reviews, please see our guides to finding book reviews in the Sciences or Social Sciences and Humanities.
Summaries
Long Description
Only by understanding Central and Eastern Europe's turbulent history during the first half of the twentieth century can we hope to make sense of the conflicts and crises that have followed World War II and, after that, the collapse of Soviet-controlled state socialism. Ivan Berend looks closely at the fateful decades preceding World War II and at twelve countries whose absence from the roster of major players was enough in itself, he says, to precipitate much of the turmoil. As waves of modernization swept over Europe, the less developed countries on the periphery tried with little or no success to imitate Western capitalism and liberalism. Instead they remained, as Berend shows, rural, agrarian societies notable for the tenacious survival of feudal and aristocratic institutions. In that context of frustration and disappointment, rebellion was inevitable. Berend leads the reader skillfully through the maze of social, cultural, economic, and political changes in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Austria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and the Soviet Union, showing how every path ended in dictatorship and despotism by the start of World War II.
Table of Contents
List of Illustrationsp. xiii
Acknowledgmentsp. xvii
Forewordp. xxi
Mapsp. xxv
The Crisis of Modernization: The Ideologies of Revolts and Their Expression in Art, 1900--1918p. 1
Catching Up or Lagging Behind?p. 3
The Dual Revolution and the Flourishing of Capitalism in Western Europep. 3
The Challenge for the Underdeveloped: Temptation and Threatp. 4
Political Responses: Reforms and Revolutionsp. 5
Latecomers in an Internationalized World Economyp. 11
The Role of Railroads and Their Spin-Off Effectsp. 13
Agriculture and the Export Sectorsp. 14
International Division of Labor and Its Impact on the Balkansp. 16
The Awakening Giantp. 17
The Polish and Baltic "Miracles"p. 18
Hungary's Semisuccessful Modernizationp. 19
Industrial Breakthrough in Austria and the Czech Landsp. 20
The Semifailure of Central and Eastern European Modernizationp. 22
The Peculiar Pattern of Central and Eastern European Societies: The Remnants of Noble and Incomplete Societiesp. 24
The Deficiency of the Dual Revolution and Its Social Impactp. 24
The Large Estate and the Remnants of Noble Societyp. 25
The Weakness of the Middle Class: Lucken-Positionen and the Emergence of the "Jewish Question"p. 32
The Incomplete Societies and the Bureaucratic-Military Parvenu in the Balkansp. 40
Minorities and National Conflictsp. 43
The Ideologies of Revolts and Revolutions: The Birth of Nationalist, Communist, and Fascist Ideasp. 48
Nationalismp. 50
The Eastern European Approach to Nation Buildingp. 52
The Peculiarities of National Ideology: Nation-State versus Kulturnationp. 53
From Cultural Movement to Mass Organizationsp. 56
Communismp. 61
The Rise of Western Socialist Reformismp. 64
The Emergence of Eastern Revolutionary Leninismp. 65
Fascismp. 70
Populism and Rising Right-Wing Radicalism in Central and Eastern Europep. 76
Revolution in Art and the Art in Revolutionp. 84
Art Nouveau, Jugendstil, Sezessionp. 87
"Ornamentation Is Sin"p. 91
The Expression of "Irrational Reality" in Literaturep. 92
The Revolution in Music: Schonberg, Stravinsky, and Bartokp. 96
Revolt against Traditional Beauty and Harmony in Visual Art: Kandinsky, Kupka, Brancusi, and Archipenkop. 100
"Destruction, Too, Is Creation"p. 104
"Wipe Out the Past Once and for All": Constructivism and Suprematismp. 106
Class Revolutions and Counter-revolutions: National Revolutions and Their Right-Wing Deformation, 1918-1929p. 113
Introductionp. 115
Class Revolutions--Counterrevolutionsp. 119
Russia's Two Revolutions in 1917p. 119
Hungary's Two Revolutionsp. 124
Bulgaria's One and a Half Revolutionsp. 130
Revolutionary Attempts in the Baltic Countries and Austriap. 133
The Wave of Counterrevolutionsp. 138
Belated National Revolutionsp. 145
Plans to Create Democratic Confederationsp. 146
Versailles and the Great Powers' Policy of Balkanizationp. 151
The Polish Casep. 154
The Independent Baltic Statesp. 159
The Making of Czechoslovakiap. 163
The Making of Yugoslaviap. 168
Making a Great Romaniap. 173
The Unstoppable New Waves: National Revolutions without Nationsp. 178
From National Revolution to Nationalist Authoritarianismp. 185
Extreme Ethnic-Religious Diversityp. 185
Nationalism Multiplies by Bipartitionp. 190
Nationalism Breaks Loose: The Link to Right-Wing Authoritarianismp. 194
From Bolshevik Revolution to a National-Imperial Modernization Dictatorshipp. 203
The Hope of a World Revolutionp. 203
The Road of Transition: The Introduction of War Communismp. 204
A New Approach toward Transition: The New Economic Policyp. 207
Debates on the Destiny of the Revolution: "Socialism in One Country"p. 210
The Concept of Forced Industrialization and Central Planningp. 214
Merging "Socialism in One Country" and the Program of Forced Industrializationp. 219
Economic Nationalism and Its Consequencesp. 224
Inflation and Despairp. 224
Economic Slowdown and Structural Crisis in the World Economyp. 227
Stabilization Effortsp. 231
The Principle and Practice of Nationalist Economic Policyp. 234
Agricultural Protectionism in Central Europep. 239
The Decline of International Tradep. 241
Success Stories of the Twentiesp. 243
The Lack of Technological-Structural Adjustmentp. 244
The Great Depression and Its Impact: Social Changes; The Triumph of the Right; The Art of the Crisis and the Crisis in Art, 1929-1939p. 247
Introductionp. 249
A Distinctive Great Depression in Central and Eastern Europep. 253
Moderate Industrial Declinep. 253
The Agricultural Crisis and Declining Terms of Tradep. 255
The Debt Crisis and the Golgotha of the Debtorsp. 259
Lack of Adjustment to the Structural Crisisp. 261
From the Great Depression to Nazi and Stalinist Isolationist Autarchyp. 266
Emergency Measures to Avoid Financial Collapsep. 266
Government Interventions and Self-Sufficiencyp. 269
The Creation of a German-Led, Isolationist, Regional Agreement Systemp. 273
Isolationism and Self-Sufficiency in the Stalinist Soviet Unionp. 278
Social Changes: New Forces and Factorsp. 287
The Peasantryp. 287
The Emergence of a Confused Lower Middle Classp. 294
The New Strata of Workers and Humiliating Unemploymentp. 297
Political Impact: The Dirty Torrent of Dictatorshipsp. 300
Engelbert Dollfuss: A Compromise between Political Catholicism and Heimwehr Fascismp. 302
Gyula Gombos and His Planned "Radical Operations": Hungary Shifts Further to the Rightp. 308
Josef Pilsudski and the Dictatorless Dictatorship in Polandp. 314
Presidential Dictatorships in the Baltic Countriesp. 318
Royal Dictatorships in the Balkansp. 324
The Characteristics of Fascism and the Authoritarian Regimes in Central and Eastern Europep. 340
From Bolshevik Revolution to a Deformed Party-State Dictatorshipp. 345
The Art of Crisis and the Crisis in Artp. 358
Back to Reality: Protest against a Dadaist Worldp. 359
The Straitjacket of Arts: Nazi-Fascist "Retro-Garde"p. 366
The Stalinist Cultural Dictate: Mandatory Socialist Realismp. 373
Conservative Academism and the Impact of Fascist Artp. 383
Conclusionp. 396
Bibliographyp. 407
Indexp. 473
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

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