Catalogue


Psychology and the teacher /
[by] Dennis Child.
edition
3rd ed. --
imprint
London ; New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, c1981.
description
xv, 396 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
ISBN
0039102939
format(s)
Journal
Holdings
More Details
imprint
London ; New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, c1981.
isbn
0039102939
catalogue key
2005564
 
Includes bibliographies and indexes.
A Look Inside
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Table of Contents
Preface to First Editionp. xv
Preface to Seventh Editionp. xvii
Introduction
Psychology and Educationp. 3
The study of psychologyp. 3
Approaches to psychologyp. 4
Branches of psychologyp. 5
Educational psychologyp. 6
A definitionp. 6
What this book is aboutp. 7
Summaryp. 8
Implications for teachersp. 8
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 9
Further readingp. 9
Development
The Nervous Systemp. 13
Organization of the nervous systemp. 14
Receptorsp. 16
Visionp. 16
Hearingp. 17
Touchp. 18
Transmissionp. 18
The structure of the brainp. 20
Overall structurep. 20
The brain stemp. 22
Hypothalamusp. 23
Thalamusp. 24
The limbic systemp. 24
Cerebral hemispheresp. 24
Cerebellum (or little brain)p. 27
Discovering how the brain worksp. 28
Memory and the brainp. 29
Emotion and the brainp. 30
Heredityp. 33
The genotype and phenotypep. 34
Maturationp. 35
Summaryp. 36
Implications for teachersp. 36
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 37
Notesp. 37
Further readingp. 38
Attention and Perceptionp. 39
The meaning of sensation, attention and perceptionp. 40
Attentionp. 40
Broadbent's filter theoryp. 41
Attention and the brainp. 43
The factors which influence attentionp. 43
Setp. 46
Attention and the teacherp. 47
Perceptionp. 50
The nature of perceptionp. 51
Visual illusions and perceptual constancyp. 53
Perceptual stylep. 54
The search for meaningp. 55
Perception and the teacherp. 56
Summaryp. 57
Implications for teachersp. 58
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 58
Notesp. 59
Further readingp. 59
Concept Formation and Cognitive Developmentp. 60
Conceptsp. 61
Theories and definitionsp. 61
Imageryp. 63
Abstract conceptsp. 64
Propositional and imaginal thoughtp. 64
Some characteristics of conceptsp. 65
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Developmentp. 66
Piaget's stages of developmentp. 69
Some criticisms of Piaget's theoryp. 77
Implications of Piaget's work for the teacherp. 78
Information-processing approach to cognitive developmentp. 79
Concept attainmentp. 80
Vygotsky (1896-1934)p. 80
Bruner's strategiesp. 82
Summaryp. 84
Implications for teachersp. 85
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 85
Notesp. 86
Further readingp. 88
Language and Thoughtp. 89
Characteristics of spoken languagep. 90
The functions of spoken languagep. 91
Language acquisitionp. 92
The onset of languagep. 92
Vocabulary growthp. 96
Language and thoughtp. 99
Origins of language and thoughtp. 99
Cognitive growth and representationp. 101
Language and meaningp. 103
Non-verbal communicationp. 105
Teaching language skillsp. 106
In the homep. 106
At schoolp. 109
Summaryp. 115
Implications for teachersp. 117
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 117
Notesp. 117
Further readingp. 118
Learning
Learning Theory and Practicep. 121
The task of learning theoristsp. 122
Two approaches to learningp. 123
The Behaviourists (or Connectionists)p. 124
J. B. Watson (1878-1958)p. 124
E. L. Thorndike (1874-1949)p. 124
I. P. Pavlov (1849-1936)p. 125
C. L. Hull (1884-1952)p. 127
B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)p. 128
The cognitive approachp. 130
Learning theories and teaching childrenp. 132
Motivationp. 132
Habits and learning setsp. 133
Knowledge of resultsp. 133
Whole or part learningp. 134
Schematic v. rote learningp. 134
Mental exercisep. 135
Closurep. 136
'Insightful' learningp. 136
Computer-based educationp. 137
The place of computer-based learning in schoolsp. 141
Summaryp. 142
Implications for teachersp. 144
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 144
Notesp. 144
Further readingp. 145
Learning and Memoryp. 146
Information-processing model of memoryp. 147
Encodingp. 147
Storagep. 147
Sensory registerp. 148
Short-term or working memory (STM)p. 148
Long-term memory (LTM)p. 150
Explicit (declarative) and implicit (procedural or non-declarative) memoryp. 152
Retrieval (recall, remembering, forgetting)p. 154
Forgettingp. 155
A curve of forgettingp. 156
Access and storage failurep. 157
Reminiscencep. 158
Massed and distributed practicep. 158
Serial learningp. 159
Approaches to learningp. 160
Learning to learn (metacognition)p. 161
Study problemsp. 162
Organizationp. 162
Place of studyp. 162
Time of day and length of studyp. 163
For parentsp. 163
For pupils--from teachersp. 165
Personal problemsp. 166
The peer groupp. 166
Meaningfulness of taskp. 167
Revisionp. 167
'Whole' and 'part' learningp. 169
Transfer of trainingp. 169
An overview: Gagne's conditions of learningp. 170
Summaryp. 173
Implications for teachersp. 174
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 174
Notesp. 174
Further readingp. 175
Human Motivationp. 176
Introductionp. 176
Motivation theoriesp. 177
Instinct theoriesp. 177
Drive and need theoriesp. 180
Cognitive theoriesp. 183
Common ground between theoriesp. 184
Motivation applied in educationp. 186
A pragmatic view of needs: Maslow's hierarchyp. 186
Changing emphasis from needs to goalsp. 189
Extrinsic and intrinsic motivationp. 190
Achievement motivationp. 195
Expectancyp. 200
Attribution theory and expectationp. 201
Drive and performancep. 204
Stressp. 206
Definitionp. 206
Stress in teachersp. 207
Stress in pupilsp. 211
Summaryp. 213
Implications for teachersp. 214
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 214
Notesp. 215
Further readingp. 218
Individual Differences
Human Intelligencep. 221
The nature of intelligent behaviourp. 222
Intelligence A, B and Cp. 223
Information processing and intelligencep. 224
Multiple intelligencesp. 225
Intelligence testingp. 226
The work of Binetp. 226
Modern test designp. 227
Intelligence test itemsp. 232
Some uses of intelligence testsp. 234
Verbal group testsp. 235
Non-verbal group testsp. 235
Individual testsp. 235
Selection testsp. 235
Tests for babiesp. 236
Factors influencing measured intelligencep. 237
Agep. 237
Practice and coachingp. 238
Effects of home and schoolp. 239
Heredity and environmentp. 241
The structure of abilitiesp. 244
Summaryp. 247
Implications for teachersp. 249
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 249
Notesp. 250
Further readingp. 250
Answers to intelligence test itemsp. 251
The Gifted and Talentedp. 253
Processes leading to exceptional abilityp. 254
Defining and assessing the qualities of giftednessp. 256
Performance on ability testsp. 256
Trait creativity--using divergent thinking testsp. 259
Divergent thinking and intelligencep. 262
Divergent thinking and subject biasp. 263
Talentp. 264
Recent developmentsp. 266
Educating gifted and talented childrenp. 268
Summaryp. 270
Implications for teachersp. 271
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 271
Notesp. 271
Further readingp. 272
Special Educational Needsp. 273
The Warnock Reportp. 274
Code of Practice (DFES, 2001)p. 275
SEN in state schoolsp. 276
Statutory assessment of, and statement for, SENp. 278
Psychologists in the service of educationp. 278
Assessmentp. 279
Statements of Special Educational Need (Statementing)p. 279
Communication and interactionp. 281
Cognition and learningp. 282
Mild and moderate learning difficultiesp. 282
Severe and special learning difficultiesp. 284
Dyslexia and autismp. 285
Behaviour, social and emotional developmentp. 286
Sensory and physical needsp. 288
Sensory difficultiesp. 288
Physical difficultiesp. 288
Medical conditionsp. 289
Summaryp. 289
Implications for teachersp. 290
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 291
Notesp. 291
Further readingp. 292
Personality, Learning and Teaching Stylesp. 293
Theories of personalityp. 294
Naive approaches to personalityp. 295
The humanist approaches to personalityp. 297
Psychoanalytic theories of personalityp. 299
Social learning theoriesp. 302
Trait theories of personalityp. 303
The assessment of personalityp. 308
Sheldon's typology of physique and personalityp. 308
Physical experiments and personalityp. 309
Self-rating inventories of personality (psychometrics)p. 309
Attitude and interest inventoriesp. 310
Projection techniquesp. 312
Self-conceptp. 313
Personality and school achievementp. 314
Traits and school achievementp. 314
Type A behaviour (personality)p. 315
Learning and teaching stylesp. 316
Styles and pupil performancep. 318
Summaryp. 321
Implications for teachersp. 322
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 322
Notesp. 322
Further readingp. 324
Educational Research and Assessment
Research in Educationp. 327
Studying human behaviourp. 327
Scientific methodp. 327
Naturalistic researchp. 328
Styles of educational researchp. 329
Experimental researchp. 329
Correlational researchp. 330
Ex post facto researchp. 331
Survey researchp. 331
Ethnographic researchp. 332
Case study researchp. 333
Historical researchp. 333
Action researchp. 334
Limitations of research in educational psychologyp. 334
Decision-making from educational researchp. 335
Reading the research literaturep. 336
Summaryp. 338
Implications for teachersp. 338
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 338
Notesp. 338
Further readingp. 339
Standardization and Item Analysisp. 341
Standardization of examination marksp. 341
Tabulationp. 342
Graphical representationp. 343
Distributionsp. 344
Meansp. 345
Standard deviationp. 347
Standardizationp. 349
Cumulative frequencyp. 349
Standard scores and percentage of a populationp. 351
Item analysisp. 352
Test blueprintp. 352
Test item designp. 353
Summaryp. 356
Implications for teachersp. 357
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 357
Notesp. 358
Further readingp. 358
Educational Assessmentp. 359
Classroom assessment practicesp. 360
Distinction between assessment and evaluationp. 361
Purposes of assessment in schoolsp. 361
Evaluating teachingp. 363
Major reasons for assessmentp. 363
Attainment (achievement)p. 363
Diagnosisp. 365
Predictionp. 366
Providing and maintaining standards--targets and benchmarksp. 366
Motivationp. 367
Developmentp. 367
Social (and administrative) engineeringp. 367
Problems associated with assessmentp. 368
Reliabilityp. 368
Validityp. 370
Comparability and value addedp. 371
The examineep. 372
Curriculump. 373
Methods of assessment in usep. 374
Conventional written examinationsp. 374
Objective-type examinationsp. 374
Continuous (intermittent) assessmentp. 378
Oral and practical examinationsp. 379
Case history and interpretive questionsp. 379
Standardized testsp. 380
Grade-related criterion testsp. 381
Checklists and rating scalesp. 382
Impression markingp. 383
Advantages and limitations of objective-type examinationsp. 383
Advantagesp. 383
Limitationsp. 384
Assessing, recording and reporting achievementp. 386
Assessingp. 386
Profiles and records of achievementp. 386
Summaryp. 387
Implications for teachersp. 388
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 389
Notesp. 389
Further readingp. 390
Answers to test itemsp. 391
Classroom and Curriculum Management
Effective Classroom Strategiesp. 395
Cognitive psychology--models of instruction (Teaching)p. 395
Entry predispositionsp. 397
Instruction or teaching processp. 398
Learning outcomesp. 398
Discovery, guided discovery and expository methods of teachingp. 399
Impact of these methods on British educationp. 401
Individual learning and diagnosisp. 402
Behaviour modification: social and academic learningp. 403
Reinforcement--rewarding and/or ignoring behaviourp. 403
Modellingp. 405
Shaping methods in the classroomp. 406
Token economiesp. 407
Applied behavioural methods in classroom managementp. 407
Class management strategiesp. 409
Leadershipp. 409
Leadership and exercising controlp. 410
Group management strategiesp. 411
Teacher's clarity of expositionp. 413
Summaryp. 414
Implications for teachersp. 415
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 415
Notesp. 415
Further readingp. 416
The Curriculum Processp. 417
The meaning of curriculum processp. 418
Curriculum interpretationp. 420
Content-based curriculump. 420
Process-based curriculump. 421
Product-based curriculump. 421
Objectivesp. 422
Bloom's taxonomyp. 422
Task analysisp. 423
Defining objectivesp. 424
Criticisms of behavioural objectivesp. 425
Knowledge or subject contentp. 426
Learning experiencesp. 427
Evaluationp. 428
Curriculum planning and the teacherp. 429
Curriculum trendsp. 429
The National Curriculump. 431
Summaryp. 432
Implications for teachersp. 433
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 433
Further readingp. 433
Psychology and Career Choicep. 434
Background to the present positionp. 434
Theories of careers developmentp. 436
Trait-and-factor theoriesp. 437
Rodger's Seven Point Planp. 437
Holland's theoryp. 441
Developmental theoriesp. 442
Ginzberg's theoryp. 442
Super's view of occupational developmentp. 446
Person- and goal-centred approachesp. 448
Careers education and guidance in schoolsp. 449
Careers teachers/co-ordinatorsp. 450
Summaryp. 452
Implications for teachersp. 453
Tutorial enquiry and discussionp. 453
Notesp. 454
Further readingp. 455
Referencesp. 457
Name Indexp. 486
Subject Indexp. 496
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