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Process dynamics : modeling, analysis, and simulation /
B. Wayne Bequette.
imprint
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall PTR, c1998.
description
xviii, 621 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN
0132068893
format(s)
Book
Holdings
Subjects
More Details
imprint
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall PTR, c1998.
isbn
0132068893
catalogue key
1762284
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
Excerpts
Introduction or Preface
Preface An understanding of the dynamic behavior of chemical processes is important from both process design and process control perspectives. It is easy to design a chemical process, based on steady-state considerations, which is practically uncontrollable when the process dynamics are considered. The current status of computational hardware and software has made it easy to interactively simulate the dynamic behavior of chemical processes. It is common for process dynamics to be included as the introductory portion of a process control textbook, however, there are a number of limitations to this approach. Since the emphasis of most of the textbooks is on process control, there is too little space to give adequate depth to modeling, analysis, and simulation of dynamic systems. The focus tends to be on transfer function-based models that are used for control system design. The prime motivation for my textbook is then to provide a more comprehensive treatment of process dynamics, including modeling, analysis, and simulation. This textbook evolved from notes developed for a course on dynamic systems that I have been teaching at Rensselaer since 1991. We have been fortunate to have a two-semester sequence in dynamics and control, allowing more depth to the coverage of each topic. Topics covered here that are not covered in a traditional text include nonlinear dynamics and the use of MATLAB for numerical analysis and simulation. Also, a significant portion of the text consists of review and learning modules. Each learning module provides model development, steady-state solutions, nonlinear dynamic results, linearization, state space and transfer function analysis and simulation. The motivation for this approach is to allow the student to "tie-together" all of the concepts, rather than treating them independently (and not understanding the connections between the different methods). An important feature of this text is the use of MATLAB software. A set of m-files used in many of the examples and in the learning modules is available via the world wide web at the following locations: http:/www/rpi.edu/-bequeb/Process_Dynamicshttp:/www.mathworks.com/education/thirdparty.htmlAdditional learning modules will also be available at the RPI location. A few acknowledgments are in order. A special thanks to Professor Jim Turpin at the University of Arkansas, who taught me the introductory course in process dynamics and control. His love of teaching should be an inspiration to us all. Many thanks to one of my graduate students, Lou Russo, who not only made a number of suggestions to improve the text, but also sparked an interest in many of the undergraduates that have taken the course. The task of developing a solutions manual has been carried out by Venkatesh Natarajan, Brian Aufderheide, Ramesh Rao, Vinay Prasad, and Kevin Schott. Preliminary drafts of many chapters were developed over cappuccinos at the Daily Grind in Albany and Troy. Bass Ale served at the El Dorado in Troy promoted discussions about teaching (and other somewhat unrelated topics) with my graduate students; the effect of the many Buffalo wings is still unclear. Final revisions to the textbook were done under the influence of cappuccinos at Cafe Avanti in Chicago (while there is a lot of effort in developing interactive classroom environments at Rensselaer, my ideal study environment looks much like a coffee shop). Teaching and learning should be dynamic processes. I would appreciate any comments and suggestions that you have on this textbook. I will use the WWW site to provide updated examples, additional problems with solutions, and suggestions for teaching and studying process dynamics. B. Wayne Bequette
Introduction or Preface
Preface An understanding of the dynamic behavior of chemical processes is important from both process design and process control perspectives. It is easy to design a chemical process, based on steady-state considerations, which is practically uncontrollable when the process dynamics are considered. The current status of computational hardware and software has made it easy to interactively simulate the dynamic behavior of chemical processes. It is common for process dynamics to be included as the introductory portion of a process control textbook, however, there are a number of limitations to this approach. Since the emphasis of most of the textbooks is on process control, there is too little space to give adequate depth to modeling, analysis, and simulation of dynamic systems. The focus tends to be on transfer function-based models that are used for control system design. The prime motivation for my textbook is then to provide a more comprehensive treatment of process dynamics, including modeling, analysis, and simulation. This textbook evolved from notes developed for a course on dynamic systems that I have been teaching at Rensselaer since 1991. We have been fortunate to have a two-semester sequence in dynamics and control, allowing more depth to the coverage of each topic. Topics covered here that are not covered in a traditional text include nonlinear dynamics and the use of MATLAB for numerical analysis and simulation. Also, a significant portion of the text consists of review and learning modules. Each learning module provides model development, steady-state solutions, nonlinear dynamic results, linearization, state space and transfer function analysis and simulation. The motivation for this approach is to allow the student to "tie-together" all of the concepts, rather than treating them independently (and not understanding the connections between the different methods). An important feature of this text is the use of MATLAB software. A set of m-files used in many of the examples and in the learning modules is available via the world wide web at the following locations: http:/www/rpi.edu/-bequeb/Process_Dynamics http:/www.mathworks.com/education/thirdparty.htmlAdditional learning modules will also be available at the RPI location. A few acknowledgments are in order. A special thanks to Professor Jim Turpin at the University of Arkansas, who taught me the introductory course in process dynamics and control. His love of teaching should be an inspiration to us all. Many thanks to one of my graduate students, Lou Russo, who not only made a number of suggestions to improve the text, but also sparked an interest in many of the undergraduates that have taken the course. The task of developing a solutions manual has been carried out by Venkatesh Natarajan, Brian Aufderheide, Ramesh Rao, Vinay Prasad, and Kevin Schott. Preliminary drafts of many chapters were developed over cappuccinos at the Daily Grind in Albany and Troy. Bass Ale served at the El Dorado in Troy promoted discussions about teaching (and other somewhat unrelated topics) with my graduate students; the effect of the many Buffalo wings is still unclear. Final revisions to the textbook were done under the influence of cappuccinos at Cafe Avanti in Chicago (while there is a lot of effort in developing interactive classroom environments at Rensselaer, my ideal study environment looks much like a coffee shop). Teaching and learning should be dynamic processes. I would appreciate any comments and suggestions that you have on this textbook. I will use the WWW site to provide updated examples, additional problems with solutions, and suggestions for teaching and studying process dynamics. B. Wayne Bequette
First Chapter
Preface

An understanding of the dynamic behavior of chemical processes is important from both process design and process control perspectives. It is easy to design a chemical process, based on steady-state considerations, which is practically uncontrollable when the process dynamics are considered. The current status of computational hardware and software has made it easy to interactively simulate the dynamic behavior of chemical processes. It is common for process dynamics to be included as the introductory portion of a process control textbook, however, there are a number of limitations to this approach. Since the emphasis of most of the textbooks is on process control, there is too little space to give adequate depth to modeling, analysis, and simulation of dynamic systems. The focus tends to be on transfer function-based models that are used for control system design. The prime motivation for my textbook is then to provide a more comprehensive treatment of process dynamics, including modeling, analysis, and simulation. This textbook evolved from notes developed for a course on dynamic systems that I have been teaching at Rensselaer since 1991. We have been fortunate to have a two-semester sequence in dynamics and control, allowing more depth to the coverage of each topic. Topics covered here that are not covered in a traditional text include nonlinear dynamics and the use of MATLAB for numerical analysis and simulation. Also, a significant portion of the text consists of review and learning modules. Each learning module provides model development, steady-state solutions, nonlinear dynamic results, linearization, state space and transfer function analysis and simulation. The motivation for this approach is to allow the student to "tie-together" all of the concepts, rather than treating them independently (and not understanding the connections between the different methods).


An important feature of this text is the use of MATLAB software. A set of m-files used in many of the examples and in the learning modules is available via the world wide web at the following locations:


http:/www/rpi.edu/-bequeb/Process_Dynamicshttp:/www.mathworks.com/education/thirdparty.htmlAdditional learning modules will also be available at the RPI location.


A few acknowledgments are in order. A special thanks to Professor Jim Turpin at the University of Arkansas, who taught me the introductory course in process dynamics and control. His love of teaching should be an inspiration to us all. Many thanks to one of my graduate students, Lou Russo, who not only made a number of suggestions to improve the text, but also sparked an interest in many of the undergraduates that have taken the course. The task of developing a solutions manual has been carried out by Venkatesh Natarajan, Brian Aufderheide, Ramesh Rao, Vinay Prasad, and Kevin Schott. Preliminary drafts of many chapters were developed over cappuccinos at the Daily Grind in Albany and Troy. Bass Ale served at the El Dorado in Troy promoted discussions about teaching (and other somewhat unrelated topics) with my graduate students; the effect of the many Buffalo wings is still unclear. Final revisions to the textbook were done under the influence of cappuccinos at Cafe Avanti in Chicago (while there is a lot of effort in developing interactive classroom environments at Rensselaer, my ideal study environment looks much like a coffee shop).


Teaching and learning should be dynamic processes. I would appreciate any comments and suggestions that you have on this textbook. I will use the WWW site to provide updated examples, additional problems with solutions, and suggestions for teaching and studying process dynamics.


B. Wayne Bequette
Full Text Reviews
Appeared in Choice on 1998-07:
Bequette has prepared an excellent text with an extensive working bibliography, many major examples worked out for the student, and a multitude of problems (an associated workbook is also available to assist in the solution of these problems). Many of the examples and much of the problem presentation are based on MATLAB computer techniques, now almost universally available to undergraduate students. This reviewer's only concern is that the mathematical background required is probably at the senior undergraduate level. In Bequette's book, the student would already be in matrices by page 38, with the assumption that the student will have no difficulty in following the text. Thus, this course should come very late in a student's career. It would be a blessing if someone could produce a book that takes advantage of MATLAB's capabilities but presents a textual (relatively nonmathematical) discussion of the example given so the lower-level student can get the flavor of process dynamics much earlier. This book is highly recommended for senior undergraduate and graduate-level courses in process dynamics and to accompany process control courses. T. J. Williams; Purdue University
Reviews
This item was reviewed in:
SciTech Book News, June 1998
Choice, July 1998
To find out how to look for other reviews, please see our guides to finding book reviews in the Sciences or Social Sciences and Humanities.
Summaries
Long Description
This edition is suitable as a text for Chemical Process Dynamics or Introductory Chemical Process Control courses at the junior/senior level. Also, for Numerical Methods courses in chemical engineering. The goal of this book is to provide an introduction to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamic behavior of chemical processes.
Main Description
Modeling, analysis and simulation of chemical processes is increasingly central to the work of chemical engineers -- but it is rarely covered in depth in process design guides. This book fills that gap. It is a comprehensive introduction to process modeling and dynamics using the powerful MATLAB and SIMULINK analysis tools.Start by understanding the rationale for process modeling, and why it is becoming so critically important. Then, review all the fundamental numerical techniques involved, including algebraic equations and numerical integration. Walk through linear systems analysis in detail, learning how to linearize non-linear models, solve linear nth Order ODE models, work with Laplace transforms and transfer function analysis, and much more. Finally, learn how to use today's increasingly-important non-linear techniques, such as phase plane analysis, quadratic maps bifurcation behavior, and analysis of chaotic behavior via Lorenz equations.For all chemical engineers, from Ph.D. professionals to non-degreed technicians and students.
Table of Contents
Process Modeling
Introduction
Motivation
Models
Systems
Background of the Reader
How To Use This Textbook
Courses Where This Textbook Can Be Used
Process Modeling
Background
Balance Equations
Material Balances
Constitutive Relationships
Material and Energy Balances
Distributes Parameter Systems
Dimensionless Models
Explicit Solutions to Dynamic Models
General Form of Dynamic Models
Numerical Techniques
Algebraic Equations
Notations
General Form for a Linear System of Equations
Nonlinear Functions of a Single Variable
MATLAB Routines for Solving Functions of a Single Variable
Multivariable Systems
MATLAB Routines for Systems of Nonlinear Algebraic Equations
Numerical Integration
Background
Euler Integration
Runge-Kutta Integration
MATLAB Integration Routines
Linear Systems Analysis
Linearization of Nonlinear Models: The State-Space Formulation
State Space Models
Linearization of Nonlinear Models
Interpretation of Linearization
Solution of the Zero-Input Form
Solution of the General State-Space Form
MATLAB Routines step and initial
Solving Linear nth Order ODE Models
Background
Solving Homogeneous, Linear ODEs with Constant Coefficients
Solving Nonhomogeneous, Linear ODEs with Constant Coefficients
Equations with Time-Varying Parameters
Routh Stability Criterion-Determining Stability Without Calculating Eigenvalues
An Introduction to Laplace Transforms
Motivation
Definition of the Laplace Transform
Examples of Laplace Transforms
Final and Initial Value Theorems
Application Examples
Table of Laplace Transforms
Transfer Function Analysis of First-Order Systems
Perspective
Responses of First-Order Systems
Examples of Self-Regulating Processes
Integrating Processes
Lead-Lag Models
Transfer Function Analysis of Higher-Order Systems
Responses of Second-Order Systems
Second-Order Systems with Numerator Dynamics
The Effect of Pole-Zero Locations on System Step Responses
Pad Approximation for Deadtime
Converting the Transfer Function Model to State-Space Form
MATLAB Routines for Step and Impulse Response
Matrix Transfer Functions
A Second-Order Example
The General Method
MATLAB Routine ss2tf
Block Diagrams
Introduction to Block Diagrams
Block Diagrams of Systems in Series
Pole-Zero Cancellation
Systems in Series
Blocks in Parallel
Feedback and Recycle Systems
Routh Stability Criterion Applied to Transfer Functions
Simulink
Linear Systems Summary
Background
Linear Boundary Value Problems
Review of Methods for Linear Initial Value Problems
Introduction to Discrete-Time Models
Parameter Estimation of Discrete Linear Systems
Nonlinear Systems Analysis
Phase-Plane Analysis
Background
Linear System Examples
Generalization of Phase-Plane Behavior
Nonlinear Systems
Introduction Nonlinear Dynamics: A Case Study of the Quadratic Map
Background
A Simple Population Growth Model
A More Realistic Population Model
Cobweb Diagrams
Bifurcation and Orbit Diagrams
Stability of Fixed-Point Solutions
Cascade of Period-Doublings
Further Comments on Chaotic Behavior
Bifurcation Behavior of Single ODE Systems
Motivation
Illustration of Bifurcation Behavior
Types of Bifurcations
Bifurcation Behavior of Two-State Systems
Background
Single-Dimensional Bifurcations in the Phase-Plane
Limit Cycle Behavior
The Hopf Bifurcation
Introduction to Chaos: The Lorenz Equations
Introduction
Background
The Lorenz Equations
Stability Analysis of the Lorenz Equations
Numerical Study of the Lorenz Equations
Chaos in Chemical Systems
Other Issues in Chaos
Review And Learning Modules
Module 1 Introduction to MATLAB
Module 2 Review of Matrix Algebra
Module 3 Linear Regression
Module 4 Introduction to SIMULINK
Module 5 Stirred Tank Heaters
Module 6 Absorption
Module 7 Isothermal Continuous Stirred Tank Chemical Reactors
Module 8 Biochemical Reactors
Module 9 Diabatic Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors
Module 10 Ideal Binary Distillation
Index
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

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