Catalogue


Deploying IP multicast in the enterprise /
Thomas Maufer.
imprint
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall PTR, c1998.
description
xvii, 275 p. : ill.
ISBN
0138976872
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Upper Saddle River, N.J. : Prentice Hall PTR, c1998.
isbn
0138976872
catalogue key
1739320
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
Excerpts
Introduction or Preface
Introduction In the summer of 1995, my company (3Com Corporation) was preparing to ship multicast routing capabilities in one of its router products. At the time, I was part of a team that was responsible for helping our sales force and customers understand this technology and its importance, which often involved writing informational white papers and presentations about the technology with Chuck Semeria. By the end of 1995, we had a paper that introduced people to how multicast routing protocols worked. After the IETF meeting in Dallas that December, we were encouraged by some fellow Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) members to publish this document as an IETF informational Request for Comments (RFC). Because multicast routing concepts are unfamiliar to many people, an introductory document was viewed as an important companion to the standards being produced within the IETF. Over the next 18 months, some of the multicast routing protocols evolved considerably in their predicted operating environments, standardization track, and even some of their internal features and mechanisms. The routing protocols had advanced beyond our original paper, so consequently we wished to delay publishing the RFC until the specifications had stabilizedafter all, we didn''t want the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" to be based on outdated information. Once the majority of these protocols had been finalized, or nearly finalized (circa early 1997), we rewrote the document to reflect the "final" details of the protocols. Just as the protocols had changed during their initial development and standardization phase, it is inevitable that they will continue to evolve over time; in addition, new protocols will be invented. While the document is really only accurate once, it is unlikely that the fundamental concepts will change, and we hope that the RFC will still be useful in the years to come. Based on an earlier internet-draft version of this developing RFC, Prentice Hall approached us regarding building a book around the foundation laid by the RFC. Given the increasing interest in multicast technology, it seemed like the time was right for such a book. The book introduces the reader to the core ideas of this subject matter, so that they may understand the mechanisms employed, enabling educated decisions on which protocols to deploy in their own unique networks, and allowing them to envision how multicast routing may affect their individual enterprise intranetworks. Beyond the details provided on the multicast routing protocols, multicast applications are discussed, and also topics which are the subject of active research and intense interest, such as reliable multicast transport protocols. The book concludes with two case studies of existing networks that are already using multicast routing, exploring deployment issues and lessons learned. No two networks are alike, but hopefully the examples chosen will provide interesting reading for those planning to deploy multicast in their own intranets. A solid multicast routing infrastructure is the key foundation upon which next- generation multicast applications are layered. Applications such as multimedia conferencing, "push-" oriented applications, multipoint data distribution, distance learning, etc., all depend on an efficient multipoint delivery service. Multicast is the key network infrastructure component enabling these and other next-generation applications. This book is written for anyone that wants to learn about technologies related to multicast IP. It can serve as a quick reference book, giving the broad outlines of the various protocols. Enough details are provided that a reader should be able to understand the internal mechanisms employed by each protocol. Not all protocols are equally applicable to every networking scenario, so understanding how each different multicast routing protocol works is critical to the successful deployment of multicast routing. Knowing the benefits and limitations of each protocol enables network managers to make better-informed decisions about which protocol(s) are appropriate for use in their own networks. Readers ought to have a basic operational understanding of unicast IP routing. While a basic introduction to unicast routing and addressing is included, it is not intended to be comprehensive, rather a refresher for concepts that are important to the explanation of multicast IP. Also helpful would be a good understanding of the basics of unicast IP applications, especially knowing how they employ the services of the unicast transport layer protocols. At a minimum, this book will give readers a solid understanding of multicast routing protocols, and the sorts of existing applications that can make use of multicast. In addition, the book can serve as an introduction to more advanced applications enabled by multicast routing technology, including reliable multicast applications. Issues surrounding the use of multicast IP over the Internet are also explored. The case studies serve as proof points that multicast can be used in production networks, and shows what sorts of applications are of interest in these environments. Roadmap This book is not necessarily designed to be read from cover to cover, though a determined reader is welcome to try. Each chapter is designed to be fairly independent of the others, so that it may be used as a concise reference. The book begins with a overview of the concepts of IP-based "intranets" and moves on to discuss multicast applications, along with a description of the motivation for multicast. Successive chapters place multicast IP in the context of unicast IP, and introduce concepts such as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and subnetting (including Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)). Before diving in to detailed descriptions of the various different multicast routing protocols, there is a discussion of how to identify and classify multicast applications, leading into a history of the standardization of multicast IP. Multicast "scoping" is discussed, then versions one and two of the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are explained. IGMP is the protocol that end stations must use to participate in multicast IP sessions. The routers use information derived from IGMP to help build "trees" so that sources can send traffic to a group without knowing the exact group membership in advance. How the routers determine the shape of these trees is the essence of multicast routing, and all the major algorithms are covered in at least one chapter each. Each protocol takes a different approach to solving this problem, and each chapter includes a short summary of the protocol''s tree building techniques and the methods employed to decide how to forward a multicast packet. Once all the existing multicast routing protocols have been covered, there is a discussion of a possible interoperability framework for these protocols, and two fundamental multicast techniques are discussed: expanding-ring searches and the Service Location Protocol. From this foundation, we move on to introduce the concepts behind reliable multicast transport protocols. A full discussion of this very interesting topic could easily fill a book of its own. I have tried to distill the issues related to reliable multicast transport protocols so that the concepts involved in various techniques can be understood. As I said, a full discussion of the interactions of reliable multicast transport protocols and their associated applications, along with issues surrounding interactions with unicast transport protocols, is beyond the scope of this book. Many of these issues are not yet well understood, and
Introduction or Preface
Introduction In the summer of 1995, my company (3Com Corporation) was preparing to ship multicast routing capabilities in one of its router products. At the time, I was part of a team that was responsible for helping our sales force and customers understand this technology and its importance, which often involved writing informational white papers and presentations about the technology with Chuck Semeria. By the end of 1995, we had a paper that introduced people to how multicast routing protocols worked. After the IETF meeting in Dallas that December, we were encouraged by some fellow Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) members to publish this document as an IETF informational Request for Comments (RFC). Because multicast routing concepts are unfamiliar to many people, an introductory document was viewed as an important companion to the standards being produced within the IETF. Over the next 18 months, some of the multicast routing protocols evolved considerably in their predicted operating environments, standardization track, and even some of their internal features and mechanisms. The routing protocols had advanced beyond our original paper, so consequently we wished to delay publishing the RFC until the specifications had stabilizedafter all, we didn't want the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" to be based on outdated information. Once the majority of these protocols had been finalized, or nearly finalized (circa early 1997), we rewrote the document to reflect the "final" details of the protocols. Just as the protocols had changed during their initial development and standardization phase, it is inevitable that they will continue to evolve over time; in addition, new protocols will be invented. While the document is really only accurate once, it is unlikely that the fundamental concepts will change, and we hope that the RFC will still be useful in the years to come. Based on an earlier internet-draft version of this developing RFC, Prentice Hall approached us regarding building a book around the foundation laid by the RFC. Given the increasing interest in multicast technology, it seemed like the time was right for such a book. The book introduces the reader to the core ideas of this subject matter, so that they may understand the mechanisms employed, enabling educated decisions on which protocols to deploy in their own unique networks, and allowing them to envision how multicast routing may affect their individual enterprise intranetworks. Beyond the details provided on the multicast routing protocols, multicast applications are discussed, and also topics which are the subject of active research and intense interest, such as reliable multicast transport protocols. The book concludes with two case studies of existing networks that are already using multicast routing, exploring deployment issues and lessons learned. No two networks are alike, but hopefully the examples chosen will provide interesting reading for those planning to deploy multicast in their own intranets. A solid multicast routing infrastructure is the key foundation upon which next- generation multicast applications are layered. Applications such as multimedia conferencing, "push-" oriented applications, multipoint data distribution, distance learning, etc., all depend on an efficient multipoint delivery service. Multicast is the key network infrastructure component enabling these and other next-generation applications. This book is written for anyone that wants to learn about technologies related to multicast IP. It can serve as a quick reference book, giving the broad outlines of the various protocols. Enough details are provided that a reader should be able to understand the internal mechanisms employed by each protocol. Not all protocols are equally applicable to every networking
First Chapter
Introduction

In the summer of 1995, my company (3Com Corporation) was preparing to ship multicast routing capabilities in one of its router products. At the time, I was part of a team that was responsible for helping our sales force and customers understand this technology and its importance, which often involved writing informational white papers and presentations about the technology with Chuck Semeria. By the end of 1995, we had a paper that introduced people to how multicast routing protocols worked.

After the IETF meeting in Dallas that December, we were encouraged by some fellow Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) members to publish this document as an IETF informational Request for Comments (RFC). Because multicast routing concepts are unfamiliar to many people, an introductory document was viewed as an important companion to the standards being produced within the IETF.

Over the next 18 months, some of the multicast routing protocols evolved considerably in their predicted operating environments, standardization track, and even some of their internal features and mechanisms. The routing protocols had advanced beyond our original paper, so consequently we wished to delay publishing the RFC until the specifications had stabilized—after all, we didn't want the “Introduction to IP Multicast Routing” to be based on outdated information. Once the majority of these protocols had been finalized, or nearly finalized (circa early 1997), we rewrote the document to reflect the “final” details of the protocols. Just as the protocols had changed during their initial development and standardization phase, it is inevitable that they will continue to evolve over time; in addition, new protocols will be invented. While the document is really only accurate once, it is unlikely that the fundamental concepts will change, and we hope that the RFC will still be useful in the years to come.

Based on an earlier internet-draft version of this developing RFC, Prentice Hall approached us regarding building a book around the foundation laid by the RFC. Given the increasing interest in multicast technology, it seemed like the time was right for such a book. The book introduces the reader to the core ideas of this subject matter, so that they may understand the mechanisms employed, enabling educated decisions on which protocols to deploy in their own unique networks, and allowing them to envision how multicast routing may affect their individual enterprise intranetworks.

Beyond the details provided on the multicast routing protocols, multicast applications are discussed, and also topics which are the subject of active research and intense interest, such as reliable multicast transport protocols. The book concludes with two case studies of existing networks that are already using multicast routing, exploring deployment issues and lessons learned. No two networks are alike, but hopefully the examples chosen will provide interesting reading for those planning to deploy multicast in their own intranets.

A solid multicast routing infrastructure is the key foundation upon which next- generation multicast applications are layered. Applications such as multimedia conferencing, “push-” oriented applications, multipoint data distribution, distance learning, etc., all depend on an efficient multipoint delivery service. Multicast is the key network infrastructure component enabling these and other next-generation applications.

This book is written for anyone that wants to learn about technologies related to multicast IP. It can serve as a quick reference book, giving the broad outlines of the various protocols. Enough details are provided that a reader should be able to understand the internal mechanisms employed by each protocol. Not all protocols are equally applicable to every networking scenario, so understanding how each different multicast routing protocol works is critical to the successful deployment of multicast routing. Knowing the benefits and limitations of each protocol enables network managers to make better-informed decisions about which protocol(s) are appropriate for use in their own networks.

Readers ought to have a basic operational understanding of unicast IP routing. While a basic introduction to unicast routing and addressing is included, it is not intended to be comprehensive, rather a refresher for concepts that are important to the explanation of multicast IP. Also helpful would be a good understanding of the basics of unicast IP applications, especially knowing how they employ the services of the unicast transport layer protocols.

At a minimum, this book will give readers a solid understanding of multicast routing protocols, and the sorts of existing applications that can make use of multicast. In addition, the book can serve as an introduction to more advanced applications enabled by multicast routing technology, including reliable multicast applications. Issues surrounding the use of multicast IP over the Internet are also explored. The case studies serve as proof points that multicast can be used in production networks, and shows what sorts of applications are of interest in these environments.



Roadmap

This book is not necessarily designed to be read from cover to cover, though a determined reader is welcome to try. Each chapter is designed to be fairly independent of the others, so that it may be used as a concise reference.

The book begins with a overview of the concepts of IP-based “intranets” and moves on to discuss multicast applications, along with a description of the motivation for multicast. Successive chapters place multicast IP in the context of unicast IP, and introduce concepts such as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and subnetting (including Variable-Length Subnet Masking (VLSM)). Before diving in to detailed descriptions of the various different multicast routing protocols, there is a discussion of how to identify and classify multicast applications, leading into a history of the standardization of multicast IP. Multicast “scoping” is discussed, then versions one and two of the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) are explained. IGMP is the protocol that end stations must use to participate in multicast IP sessions.

The routers use information derived from IGMP to help build “trees” so that sources can send traffic to a group without knowing the exact group membership in advance. How the routers determine the shape of these trees is the essence of multicast routing, and all the major algorithms are covered in at least one chapter each. Each protocol takes a different approach to solving this problem, and each chapter includes a short summary of the protocol's tree building techniques and the methods employed to decide how to forward a multicast packet. Once all the existing multicast routing protocols have been covered, there is a discussion of a possible interoperability framework for these protocols, and two fundamental multicast techniques are discussed: expanding-ring searches and the Service Location Protocol.

From this foundation, we move on to introduce the concepts behind reliable multicast transport protocols. A full discussion of this very interesting topic could easily fill a book of its own. I have tried to distill the issues related to reliable multicast transport protocols so that the concepts involved in various techniques can be understood. As I said, a full discussion of the interactions of reliable multicast transport protocols and their associated applications, along with issues surrounding interactions with unicast transport protocols, is beyond the scope of this book. Many of these issues are not yet well understood, and still the subject of active research and debate. The main body of the book concludes with two case studies: InteropNet and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory's campus network.

Finally, the book closes with five Appendices: a Glossary; a detailed discussion of IGMP, including details of all its packet formats; and a history of the development of multicast technology, including the Internet's multicast backbone (MBone). There is a high-level overview of the various multicast routing protocols, and an overview of the two main standards bodies doing work relevant to multicast IP. The book concludes with a list of references, including Requests for Comments (RFCs), some current IETF internet-draft documents, textbooks, and other documents (e.g., Ph.D. theses).
Reviews
This item was reviewed in:
SciTech Book News, June 1998
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Summaries
Unpaid Annotation
IP Multicast: Get ready for the future of Enterprise broadcasting! With multicasting, it's possible to send data, video, and audio to many requesting clients simultaneously, across the Internet or any other IP-based network. Multicasting is an essential building block for a new generation of applications, such as leading-edge "push" applications (including news and sports updates, real-time stock quotes, and others), software distribution, and certain multimedia applications. In this book, Thomas A. Maufer-co-author of the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" Request for Comments (RFC)-closely examines the protocols which make multicasting possible - and the challenging routing issues that arise in enterprise Multicasting. Maufer explains the rationale for multicast, describes important classes of multicast-enabled applications, and the essentials of multicast IP technology, including the "host group" model and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Ensure successful deployment of a multicast infrastructure over your existing networks by understanding how multicast routing protocols work.Protocols such as the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, Protocol-Independent Multicast - Dense Mode are discussed, along with the exciting new Protocol-Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode, and Core Based Trees protocols. Multicast-based transport protocols are discussed, including the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), and so-called "reliable" multicast transport protocols are examined. Finally, watch IP Multicast at work in two leading-edge deployments: Networld+Interop's InteropNet, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Understand IP Multicast now -- and deploy it tomorrow. Practical deployment considerations for enterprise intranets Current and future intranet multicast routing protocols Current and emerging applications: Conferencing, whiteboards, n
Long Description
IP Multicast is the underlying technology which will make all "push" applications possible on the web. This is a guide for network managers on how to deploy IP multicast technology in medium to large size companies. A major portion of the book will be devoted to multicast routing protocols. Will cover latest developments of the IP Multicast Initiative started in December 1996. Author is Technical Strategist at 3COM and active in Internet Engineering Task Force activities regarding the IP Multicast standard.
Main Description
With Multicasting, it's possible to send data, video and audio to many requesting clients at once, across the Internet or any other IP network. Multicasting is at the heart of a new generation of Web applications, from real-time stock updates to software distribution. This is the first book that closely examines the protocols which make Multicasting possible -- and the thorny routing issues that arise in enterprise Multicasting.Understand the rationale for Multicast and the fundamentals of IP technology, including the "host group" model and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Learn how to implement Multicast routing today, and the role of techniques such as Reverse-Path Multicasting, Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, Protocol-Independent Multicast -- Dense Mode, and Multicast Extensions to OSPF. Then learn how multicast is evolving. Preview Core Based Trees, and Protocol-Independent Multicast -- Sparse Mode. Understand how MBone fits -- and where it's headed. Finally, watch IP Multicast at work in state-of-the-art case studies, including InteropNet and the Georgia Tech campus network.For all network engineers and managers developing Internet-based multicasting (and "push") applications.
Back Cover Copy
IP Multicast: Get ready for the future of Enterprise broadcasting!With multicasting, it's possible to send data, video, and audio to many requesting clients simultaneously, across the Internet or any other IP-based network. Multicasting is an essential building block for a new generation of applications, such as leading-edge "push" applications (including news and sports updates, real-time stock quotes, and others),software distribution, and certain multimedia applications.In this book, Thomas A. Maufer-co-author of the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" Request for Comments (RFC)-closely examines the protocols which make multicasting possible - and the challenging routing issues that arise in enterprise Multicasting. Maufer explains the rationale for multicast, describes important classes of multicast-enabled applications, and the essentials of multicast IP technology, including the "host group" model and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).Ensure successful deployment of a multicast infrastructure over your existing networks by understanding how multicast routing protocols work.Protocols such as the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, Protocol-Independent Multicast - Dense Mode are discussed, along with the exciting new Protocol-Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode, and Core Based Trees protocols.Multicast-based transport protocols are discussed, including the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), and so-called "reliable" multicast transport protocols are examined. Finally, watch IP Multicast at work in two leading-edge deployments: Networld+Interop's InteropNet, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Understand IP Multicast now -- and deploy it tomorrow. Practical deployment considerations for enterprise intranets Current and future intranet multicast routing protocols Current and emerging applications: Conferencing, whiteboards, news updates, live or pre-recorded media streaming events, software distribution, reliable multicast transport protocols, the Service Location Protocol, etc. Multicast routing interoperability frameworks, "reliable" multicast transport protocols, the Realtime Transport Protocol, and more The history and possible future evolution of the Internet's Mbone For all network engineers and managers developing multicast-enabled applications for use on the Internet or intranet
Bowker Data Service Summary
This work provides a comprehensive guide to "multicasting" - how to broadcast data over the Internet to only those "subscribers" who want to receive it.
Back Cover Copy
89768-6 IP Multicast: Get ready for the future of Enterprise broadcasting! With multicasting, it's possible to send data, video, and audio to many requesting clients simultaneously, across the Internet or any other IP-based network. Multicasting is an essential building block for a new generation of applications, such as leading-edge "push" applications (including news and sports updates, real-time stock quotes, and others), software distribution, and certain multimedia applications. In this book, Thomas A. Maufer-co-author of the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" Request for Comments (RFC)-closely examines the protocols which make multicasting possible - and the challenging routing issues that arise in enterprise Multicasting. Maufer explains the rationale for multicast, describes important classes of multicast-enabled applications, and the essentials of multicast IP technology, including the "host group" model and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP). Ensure successful deployment of a multicast infrastructure over your existing networks by understanding how multicast routing protocols work.Protocols such as the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, Protocol-Independent Multicast - Dense Mode are discussed, along with the exciting new Protocol-Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode, and Core Based Trees protocols. Multicast-based transport protocols are discussed, including the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), and so-called "reliable" multicast transport protocols are examined. Finally, watch IP Multicast at work in two leading-edge deployments: Networld+Interop's InteropNet, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Understand IP Multicast now -- and deploy it tomorrow. Practical deployment considerations for enterprise intranets Current and future intranet multicast routing protocols Current and emerging applications: Conferencing, whiteboards, news updates, live or pre-recorded media streaming events, software distribution, reliable multicast transport protocols, the Service Location Protocol, etc. Multicast routing interoperability frameworks, "reliable" multicast transport protocols, the Realtime Transport Protocol, and more The history and possible future evolution of the Internet's Mbone For all network engineers and managers developing multicast-enabled applications for use on the Internet or intranet
Back Cover Copy
89768-6IP Multicast: Get ready for the future of Enterprise broadcasting!With multicasting, it's possible to send data, video, and audio to many requesting clients simultaneously, across the Internet or any other IP-based network. Multicasting is an essential building block for a new generation of applications, such as leading-edge "push" applications (including news and sports updates, real-time stock quotes, and others),software distribution, and certain multimedia applications.In this book, Thomas A. Maufer-co-author of the "Introduction to IP Multicast Routing" Request for Comments (RFC)-closely examines the protocols which make multicasting possible - and the challenging routing issues that arise in enterprise Multicasting. Maufer explains the rationale for multicast, describes important classes of multicast-enabled applications, and the essentials of multicast IP technology, including the "host group" model and the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).Ensure successful deployment of a multicast infrastructure over your existing networks by understanding how multicast routing protocols work.Protocols such as the Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol, Multicast Extensions to OSPF, Protocol-Independent Multicast - Dense Mode are discussed, along with the exciting new Protocol-Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode, and Core Based Trees protocols.Multicast-based transport protocols are discussed, including the Realtime Transport Protocol (RTP), and so-called "reliable" multicast transport protocols are examined. Finally, watch IP Multicast at work in two leading-edge deployments: Networld+Interop's InteropNet, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Understand IP Multicast now -- and deploy it tomorrow. Practical deployment considerations for enterprise intranets Current and future intranet multicast routing protocols Current and emerging applications: Conferencing, whiteboards, news updates, live or pre-recorded media streaming events, software distribution, reliable multicast transport protocols, the Service Location Protocol, etc. Multicast routing interoperability frameworks, "reliable" multicast transport protocols, the Realtime Transport Protocol, and more The history and possible future evolution of the Internet's Mbone For all network engineers and managers developing multicast-enabled applications for use on the Internet or intranet
Table of Contents
Introduction
Introduction and Preliminaries
Introduction
What is an Intranet?
How Is an Intranet Different?
Understanding the Need for Multicast
Broadcast
Replicated Unicast
Network-Layer Multicast
IP Addressing Overview
The IP Address Space
Unicast
'Classes' of Network Numbers
Overview
What Is CIDR?
Broadcast
Limited Broadcast
All-Subnets Broadcast
Subnet-Specific Broadcast
Anycast
Multicast
Reserved Multicast Addresses
Multicast Address Space
Multicast IP over IEEE 802 LANs
Multicast Summary
Characteristics of Multicast Applications
Identifying Multicast Applications
Multicast shy
Multimedia
Multicast Applications Are Not Necessarily Bandwidth-Intensive!
Multidestination Applications Don't Always Use Multicast
Motivation for Multicast
Multicast Videoconferencing and Your Travel Budget
The Future of Multicast on Your Intranet
The History of IP on Your Intranet
Multicast Is Not Perfect (Yet) . . .
Multicast IP Technology Overview
Multicast IP Fundamentals
The Lineage of Multicast Standardization
Host Group Model
Controlling the Scope of Multicast Forwarding
Implicit Scoping
TTL-Based Scoping
Administrative Scoping
Overview of the Internet Group
Management Protocol
IGMP Version
IGMPv1 Protocol Overview
The IGMP Report Supression Technique
Detecting Group Membership Changes
End Stations and Join Latency
IGMP Version
IGMPv2 Querier Election
IGMPv2 New Messages
Leave Latency and IGMPv
IGMPv2 Summary
IGMPv2 and IGMPv1 Coexistence Rules
Rules for IGMPv2 End Stations
Rules for Routers
IGMP Version 3 (Future)
Introduction to Multicast Routing and Forwarding
Multicast Address Allocation
How Are Class D Addresses Assigned?
Brief Overview of Routing Techniques
Broadcast and Prune
Examples of Broadcast-and-Prune Multicast Routing Protocols
Shared Trees
Multicast Forwarding versus Multicast Routing
Unicast versus Multicast Forwarding
Multicast Forwarding Procedure
Multicast Routing Protocols: Scalability and Routing Policy Issues
Intranet Multicast Routing Today
Evolution of Reverse-Path Multicasting (RPM)
Flooding
Reverse-Path Broadcasting (RPB)
Reverse-Path Broadcasting: Operation
RPB: Benefits and Limitations
Truncated RPB (TRPB)
Reverse-Path Multicasting
Operation
Grafting
RPM's Limitations
Distance-Vector Multicast Routing Protocol
Physical and Tunnel Interfaces
Basic Operation
DVMRP Router Functions
DVMRP Routing Table
DVMRP Forwarding Table
DVMRP Tree Building and Forwarding Summary
Weaknesses in DVMRP
Deploying DVMRP
Native DVMRP Intranet
Backbone between Domains Running Other Multicast Routing Protocols
Connecting to the Internet's Multicast Backbone
Protocol-Independent MulticastDense Mode
Protocol-Independent Multicast Overview
PIMDense Mode (PIM-DM)
PIM-DM Tree Building and Forwarding Summary
Multicast Extensions to OSPF (MOSPF)
Intra-Area Routing with MOSPF
Local Group Database
Datagram's Shortest Path Tree
Forwarding Cache
Interarea Routing with MOSPF
Interarea Multicast Forwarders
An Interarea Datagram's Shortest Path Tree
Inter-Autonomous-System Multicasting with MOSPF
MOSPF Tree Building and Forwarding Summary
Weaknesses of MOSPF
Deploying MOSPF
Mixing MOSPF and OSPF Routers within an OSPF Routing Domain
Intranet Multicast Routing Tomorrow
Core-Based Trees (CBT)
Intra-domain Bootstrapping
Joining a Group's Shared Tree
CBT Tree Maintenance
CBT's Designated Router
Data Packet Forwarding
CBT's Forwarding Cache
Non-Member Sending
CBT Tree Building and Forwarding Summary
Protocol-Independent MulticastSparse Mode (PIM-SM)
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