Catalogue


Observational studies /
Paul R. Rosenbaum.
imprint
New York : Springer-Verlag, c1995.
description
xv, 230 p. ; 224 cm.
ISBN
0387944826
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
New York : Springer-Verlag, c1995.
isbn
0387944826
catalogue key
1365572
 
Includes bibliographical references and index.
A Look Inside
About the Author
Author Affiliation
Paul R. Rosenbaum is Robert G. Putzel Professor, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association
Summaries
Main Description
An Observational study is an empiric investigation of the effects caused by a treatment, policy, or intervention in which it is not possible to assign subjects at random to treatment or control, as would be done in a controlled experiment. Observational studies are common in most fields that study the effects of treatments on people. The second edition of?Observational Studies? is about 50 percent longer than the first edition, with many new examples and methods. There are new chapters on nonadditive models for treatment effects (Chapter 5) and planning observational studies (Chapter 11) and Chapter 9, on coherence, has been extensively rewritten. Paul R. Rosenbaum is Robert G. Putzel Professor, Department of Statistics, The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. He is a fellow of the American Statistical Association.
Table of Contents
Observational Studiesp. 1
What Are Observational Studies?p. 1
Some Observational Studiesp. 2
Purpose of This Bookp. 10
Bibliographic Notesp. 11
Referencesp. 16
Randomized Experimentsp. 19
Introduction and Example: A Randomized Clinical Trialp. 19
The Lady Tasting Teap. 21
Randomized Experimentsp. 23
Testing the Hypothesis of No Treatment Effectp. 27
Simple Models for Treatment Effectsp. 40
Confidence Intervalsp. 44
Point Estimatesp. 46
More Complex Outcomesp. 50
Appendix: Effect Increasing Tests Under Alternativesp. 54
Appendix: The Set of Treatment Assignmentsp. 55
Bibliographic Notesp. 63
Problemsp. 64
Referencesp. 66
Overt Bias in Observational Studiesp. 71
Introduction: An Example and Planning Adjustmentsp. 71
Adjustments by Exact Stratification and Matchingp. 77
Case-Referent Studiesp. 83
Small Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Scorep. 86
Large Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Scorep. 90
Inexact Matching Followed by Stratificationp. 92
Bibliographic Notesp. 99
Problemsp. 100
Referencesp. 100
Sensitivity to Hidden Biasp. 105
What Is a Sensitivity Analysis?p. 105
A Model for Sensitivity Analysisp. 106
Matched Pairsp. 110
Sensitivity Analysis for Sign-Score Statisticsp. 119
Multiple Controls and Continuous Responsesp. 135
Sensitivity Analysis for Two Unmatched Groupsp. 140
Appendix: Technical Results and Proofsp. 151
Bibliographic Notesp. 158
Problemsp. 158
Referencesp. 163
Models for Treatment Effectsp. 171
Effects That Vary from Person to Personp. 171
Order Statisticsp. 173
Dilated Effectsp. 173
Instrumental Variablesp. 180
Attributable Effects: Binary Responsesp. 188
Attributable Effects: Displacementsp. 192
Inference About a Quantilep. 195
Bibliographic Notesp. 198
Problemsp. 198
Appendix: Minimum Wage Datap. 199
Referencesp. 201
Known Effectsp. 205
Detecting Hidden Bias Using Known Effectsp. 205
An Outcome Known to Be Unaffected by the Treatmentp. 214
An Outcome With Known Direction of Effectp. 221
The Behavior of T with Nonnegative Effectsp. 222
Bias of Known Directionp. 223
Bibliographic Notesp. 226
Problemsp. 226
Referencesp. 227
Multiple Reference Groups in Case-Referent Studiesp. 231
Multiple Reference Groupsp. 231
Matched Studies with Two Referent Groupsp. 237
Appendix: Selection and Hidden Biasp. 244
Appendix: Derivation of Bounds for Sensitivity Analysisp. 246
Bibliographic Notesp. 248
Problemsp. 249
Referencesp. 250
Multiple Control Groupsp. 253
The Role of a Second Control Groupp. 253
Selecting Control Groupsp. 263
Comparing Outcomes in Two Control Groupsp. 265
Bibliographic Notesp. 269
Problemsp. 270
Referencesp. 272
Coherence and Focused Hypothesesp. 277
Coherent Associationsp. 277
Signed Rank Statistics for Coherent Predictionsp. 279
Example: Do Anesthetic Gases Cause Mutations?p. 282
Properties of the Coherent Signed Rank Testp. 285
Some Other Forms of Coherencep. 285
Strengths and Limitations of Coherencep. 286
Appendix: Arrangement-Increasing Functions of Matricesp. 288
Bibliographic Notesp. 289
Problemsp. 290
Referencesp. 290
Constructing Matched Sets and Stratap. 295
Introduction: Propensity Scores, Structures, Algorithmsp. 295
The Propensity Scorep. 296
Optimal Stratap. 302
Optimal Matchingp. 311
Bibliographic Notesp. 322
Softwarep. 322
Problemsp. 323
Referencesp. 328
Planning an Observational Studyp. 333
Introduction and Some Ground Rulesp. 333
Three Observational Studiesp. 336
Choice of Research Hypothesisp. 339
A Control Groupp. 342
Defining Treated and Control Groupsp. 344
Competing Theoriesp. 347
Internal Replicationp. 351
Nondose Nonresponse: An Absent Associationp. 352
Stability Analysesp. 353
Abrupt, Short-Lived Treatmentsp. 355
Natural Blocksp. 357
Refute Several Alternative Explanationsp. 358
Bibliographic Notesp. 358
Problemsp. 358
Referencesp. 360
Some Strategic Issuesp. 367
What Are Strategic Issues?p. 367
Some Specific Suggestionsp. 368
Referencesp. 369
Indexp. 370
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