Observational Studies | p. 1 |
What Are Observational Studies? | p. 1 |
Some Observational Studies | p. 2 |
Purpose of This Book | p. 10 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 11 |
References | p. 16 |
Randomized Experiments | p. 19 |
Introduction and Example: A Randomized Clinical Trial | p. 19 |
The Lady Tasting Tea | p. 21 |
Randomized Experiments | p. 23 |
Testing the Hypothesis of No Treatment Effect | p. 27 |
Simple Models for Treatment Effects | p. 40 |
Confidence Intervals | p. 44 |
Point Estimates | p. 46 |
More Complex Outcomes | p. 50 |
Appendix: Effect Increasing Tests Under Alternatives | p. 54 |
Appendix: The Set of Treatment Assignments | p. 55 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 63 |
Problems | p. 64 |
References | p. 66 |
Overt Bias in Observational Studies | p. 71 |
Introduction: An Example and Planning Adjustments | p. 71 |
Adjustments by Exact Stratification and Matching | p. 77 |
Case-Referent Studies | p. 83 |
Small Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score | p. 86 |
Large Sample Inference with an Unknown Propensity Score | p. 90 |
Inexact Matching Followed by Stratification | p. 92 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 99 |
Problems | p. 100 |
References | p. 100 |
Sensitivity to Hidden Bias | p. 105 |
What Is a Sensitivity Analysis? | p. 105 |
A Model for Sensitivity Analysis | p. 106 |
Matched Pairs | p. 110 |
Sensitivity Analysis for Sign-Score Statistics | p. 119 |
Multiple Controls and Continuous Responses | p. 135 |
Sensitivity Analysis for Two Unmatched Groups | p. 140 |
Appendix: Technical Results and Proofs | p. 151 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 158 |
Problems | p. 158 |
References | p. 163 |
Models for Treatment Effects | p. 171 |
Effects That Vary from Person to Person | p. 171 |
Order Statistics | p. 173 |
Dilated Effects | p. 173 |
Instrumental Variables | p. 180 |
Attributable Effects: Binary Responses | p. 188 |
Attributable Effects: Displacements | p. 192 |
Inference About a Quantile | p. 195 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 198 |
Problems | p. 198 |
Appendix: Minimum Wage Data | p. 199 |
References | p. 201 |
Known Effects | p. 205 |
Detecting Hidden Bias Using Known Effects | p. 205 |
An Outcome Known to Be Unaffected by the Treatment | p. 214 |
An Outcome With Known Direction of Effect | p. 221 |
The Behavior of T with Nonnegative Effects | p. 222 |
Bias of Known Direction | p. 223 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 226 |
Problems | p. 226 |
References | p. 227 |
Multiple Reference Groups in Case-Referent Studies | p. 231 |
Multiple Reference Groups | p. 231 |
Matched Studies with Two Referent Groups | p. 237 |
Appendix: Selection and Hidden Bias | p. 244 |
Appendix: Derivation of Bounds for Sensitivity Analysis | p. 246 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 248 |
Problems | p. 249 |
References | p. 250 |
Multiple Control Groups | p. 253 |
The Role of a Second Control Group | p. 253 |
Selecting Control Groups | p. 263 |
Comparing Outcomes in Two Control Groups | p. 265 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 269 |
Problems | p. 270 |
References | p. 272 |
Coherence and Focused Hypotheses | p. 277 |
Coherent Associations | p. 277 |
Signed Rank Statistics for Coherent Predictions | p. 279 |
Example: Do Anesthetic Gases Cause Mutations? | p. 282 |
Properties of the Coherent Signed Rank Test | p. 285 |
Some Other Forms of Coherence | p. 285 |
Strengths and Limitations of Coherence | p. 286 |
Appendix: Arrangement-Increasing Functions of Matrices | p. 288 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 289 |
Problems | p. 290 |
References | p. 290 |
Constructing Matched Sets and Strata | p. 295 |
Introduction: Propensity Scores, Structures, Algorithms | p. 295 |
The Propensity Score | p. 296 |
Optimal Strata | p. 302 |
Optimal Matching | p. 311 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 322 |
Software | p. 322 |
Problems | p. 323 |
References | p. 328 |
Planning an Observational Study | p. 333 |
Introduction and Some Ground Rules | p. 333 |
Three Observational Studies | p. 336 |
Choice of Research Hypothesis | p. 339 |
A Control Group | p. 342 |
Defining Treated and Control Groups | p. 344 |
Competing Theories | p. 347 |
Internal Replication | p. 351 |
Nondose Nonresponse: An Absent Association | p. 352 |
Stability Analyses | p. 353 |
Abrupt, Short-Lived Treatments | p. 355 |
Natural Blocks | p. 357 |
Refute Several Alternative Explanations | p. 358 |
Bibliographic Notes | p. 358 |
Problems | p. 358 |
References | p. 360 |
Some Strategic Issues | p. 367 |
What Are Strategic Issues? | p. 367 |
Some Specific Suggestions | p. 368 |
References | p. 369 |
Index | p. 370 |
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