Catalogue


Reforming juvenile justice : a developmental approach /
Committee on Assessing Juvenile Justice Reform ; Richard J. Bonnie [et al.], editors ; Committee on Law and Justice ; Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education ; National Research Council of the National Academies.
imprint
Washington, D.C. : The National Academies Press, 2013, c2013
description
xix, 442 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
ISBN
0309278902, 9780309278904
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Washington, D.C. : The National Academies Press, 2013, c2013
isbn
0309278902
9780309278904
contents note
Acronyms -- Summary -- Introduction -- Historical context -- Current practice in the juvenile justice system -- Adolescent development -- Framework for reform -- Preventing reoffending -- Accountability and fairness -- Reducing racial/ethnic disparities -- Achieving reform -- Federal role -- Moving forward -- References -- Appendixes: -- Costs and benefits of juvenile justice interventions -- Missouri model: a critical state of knowledge -- Mentoring -- Biographical sketches of committee members and staff.
catalogue key
10349630
 
Includes bibliographical references (p. 333-392).
A Look Inside
Summaries
Description for Bookstore
Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approachwas to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.
Long Description
Adolescence is a distinct, yet transient, period of development between childhood and adulthood characterized by increased experimentation and risk-taking, a tendency to discount long-term consequences, and heightened sensitivity to peers and other social influences. A key function of adolescence is developing an integrated sense of self, including individualization, separation from parents, and personal identity. Experimentation and novelty-seeking behavior, such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving, are thought to serve a number of adaptive functions despite their risks. Research indicates that for most youth, the period of risky experimentation does not extend beyond adolescence, ceasing as identity becomes settled with maturity. Much adolescent involvement in criminal activity is part of the normal developmental process of identity formation and most adolescents will mature out of these tendencies. Evidence of significant changes in brain structure and function during adolescence strongly suggests that these cognitive tendencies characteristic of adolescents are associated with biological immaturity of the brain and with an imbalance among developing brain systems. This imbalance model implies dual systems: one involved in cognitive and behavioral control and one involved in socio-emotional processes. Accordingly adolescents lack mature capacity for self-regulations because the brain system that influences pleasure-seeking and emotional reactivity develops more rapidly than the brain system that supports self-control. This knowledge of adolescent development has underscored important differences between adults and adolescents with direct bearing on the design and operation of the justice system, raising doubts about the core assumptions driving the criminalization of juvenile justice policy in the late decades of the 20th century. It was in this context that the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) asked the National Research Council to convene a committee to conduct a study of juvenile justice reform. The goal of Reforming Juvenile Justice: A Developmental Approach was to review recent advances in behavioral and neuroscience research and draw out the implications of this knowledge for juvenile justice reform, to assess the new generation of reform activities occurring in the United States, and to assess the performance of OJJDP in carrying out its statutory mission as well as its potential role in supporting scientifically based reform efforts.
Main Description
Are adolescents who engage in novelty-seeking and risk-taking behaviors-such as alcohol and drug use, unsafe sex, and reckless driving-likely to continue those behaviors as adults? What is an effective length of time for keeping youth in secure confinement? What role does "fairness" play in preventing reoffending? Fortunately, science is increasingly providing answers to these questions. The past decade has seen an explosion of knowledge about adolescent development and the neurological underpinnings of adolescent behavior. There has also been an explosion of knowledge about the pathways to delinquency and the effectiveness of prevention and treatment programs. In addition, the negative long-term effects of transferring youths to the adult criminal justice system and confining them in harsh conditions are now increasingly clear. Reforming Juvenile Justice details what has been learned about adolescent development and how that knowledge can be applied to the policies of the police, the courts, and other institutions that are responsible for both the safety of communities and holding people accountable for their behavior. It examines programs that have been effective in reducing reoffending and lays out the basis for a 21st-century juvenile justice system. This volume will be valuable not only to policy makers and those involved in the juvenile justice system, but also to parents, school officials, and others who face the often perplexing behavior of adolescents. Book jacket.
Table of Contents
Acronymsp. xvii
Summaryp. 1
Introductionp. 15
Historical Contextp. 31
Current Practice in the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 49
Adolescent Developmentp. 89
A Framework for Reformp. 119
Preventing Reoffendingp. 139
Accountability and Fairnessp. 183
Reducing Racial/Ethnic Disparitiesp. 211
Achieving Reformp. 241
The Federal Rolep. 281
Moving Forwardp. 321
Referencesp. 333
Appendixes
Costs and Benefits of Juvenile Justice Interventionsp. 393
The Missouri Model: A Critical State of Knowledgep. 411
Mentoringp. 431
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staffp. 435
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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