Catalogue


Exploring health and environmental costs of food : workshop summary /
Leslie Pray, Laura Pillsbury, and Maria Oria, rapporteurs ; Food and Nutrition Board, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of the National Academies.
imprint
Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, c2012.
description
x, 106 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
ISBN
0309265800, 9780309265805
format(s)
Book
Holdings
More Details
imprint
Washington, D.C. : National Academies Press, c2012.
isbn
0309265800
9780309265805
contents note
Introduction -- The economics of food prices -- Understanding measures and strategies -- Examining social and ecological costs and benefits -- Attaching value to costs and benefits -- Exploring costs and benefits -- Reflecting on the path forward.
general note
"Workshop was held on April 23-24, 2012 in Washington, D.C."
abstract
"The U.S. food system provides many benefits, not the least of which is a safe, nutritious and consistent food supply. However, the same system also creates significant environmental, public health, and other costs that generally are not recognized and not accounted for in the retail price of food. These include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, air pollution, and their environmental consequences, the transfer of antibiotic resistance from food animals to human, and other human health outcomes, including foodborne illnesses and chronic disease. Some external costs which are also known as externalities are accounted for in ways that do not involve increasing the price of food. But many are not. They are borne involuntarily by society at large. A better understanding of external costs would help decision makers at all stages of the life cycle to expand the benefits of the U.S. food system even further. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a public workshop on April 23-24, 2012, to explore the external costs of food, methodologies for quantifying those costs, and the limitations of the methodologies. The workshop was intended to be an information-gathering activity only. Given the complexity of the issues and the broad areas of expertise involved, workshop presentations and discussions represent only a small portion of the current knowledge and are by no means comprehensive. The focus was on the environmental and health impacts of food, using externalities as a basis for discussion and animal products as a case study. The intention was not to quantify costs or benefits, but rather to lay the groundwork for doing so. A major goal of the workshop was to identify information sources and methodologies required to recognize and estimate the costs and benefits of environmental and public health consequences associated with the U.S. food system. It was anticipated that the workshop would provide the basis for a follow-up consensus study of the subject and that a central task of the consensus study will be to develop a framework for a full-scale accounting of the environmental and public health effects for all food products of the U.S. food system. Exploring Health and Environmental Costs of Food: Workshop Summary provides the basis for a follow-up planning discussion involving members of the IOM Food and Nutrition Board and the NRC Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and others to develop the scope and areas of expertise needed for a larger-scale, consensus study of the subject"--Publisher's description.
catalogue key
10202238
 
Also issued online.
Includes bibliographical references.
A Look Inside
Summaries
Description for Bookstore
The U.S. food system provides many benefits, not the least of which is a safe, nutritious and consistent food supply. However, the same system also creates significant environmental, public health, and other costs that generally are not recognized and not accounted for in the retail price of food. These include greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, air pollution, and their environmental consequences, the transfer of antibiotic resistance from food animals to human, and other human health outcomes, including foodborne illnesses and chronic disease. Some external costs which are also known as externalities are accounted for in ways that do not involve increasing the price of food. But many are not. They are borne involuntarily by society at large. A better understanding of external costs would help decision makers at all stages of the life cycle to expand the benefits of the U.S. food system even further. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the National Research Council (NRC) with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a public workshop on April 23-23, 2012, to explore the external costs of food, methodologies for quantifying those costs, and the limitations of the methodologies. The workshop was intended to be an information-gathering activity only. Given the complexity of the issues and the broad areas of expertise involved, workshop presentations and discussions represent only a small portion of the current knowledge and are by no means comprehensive. The focus was on the environmental and health impacts of food, using externalities as a basis for discussion and animal products as a case study. The intention was not to quantify costs or benefits, but rather to lay the groundwork for doing so. A major goal of the workshop was to identify information sources and methodologies required to recognize and estimate the costs and benefits of environmental and public health consequences associated with the U.S. food system. It was anticipated that the workshop would provide the basis for a follow-up consensus study of the subject and that a central task of the consensus study will be to develop a framework for a full-scale accounting of the environmental and public health effects for all food products of the U.S. food system. Exploring Health and Environmental Costs of Food: Workshop Summary provides the basis for a follow-up planning discussion involving members of the IOM Food and Nutrition Board and the NRC Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources and others to develop the scope and areas of expertise needed for a larger-scale, consensus study of the subject.
Table of Contents
Introductionp. 1
Organization of This Reportp. 4
Referencesp. 6
The Economics of Food Pricesp. 7
Determining the Market Price of Foodp. 7
The Concept of Externalities: Costs and Benefits Not Reflected in Market Pricesp. 9
Things to Keep in Mind About the External Costs of Foodp. 10
Questionsp. 11
Referencesp. 12
Understanding Measures and Strategiesp. 13
Life Cycle Assessmentp. 14
Health Impact Assessmentp. 20
Environmental Consequencesp. 24
Public Health Consequencesp. 28
Referencesp. 33
Examining Social and Ecological Costs and Benefitsp. 35
Agricultural Ecosystem Services and the Costs of Food Productionp. 36
Impact of the Food System on Health Inequalitiesp. 39
Accessibility to Foodp. 42
Animal Welfarep. 45
Referencesp. 49
Attaching Value to Costs and Benefitsp. 53
Lessons from The Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Usep. 54
Valuing Agricultural Externalities and Public Health Impactsp. 61
Referencesp. 66
Exploring Costs and Benefitsp. 67
Effects of Food Production, Processing, and Consumption on GHG Emissions and Energy Usep. 69
Soil, Water, and Other Environmental Consequences of Food Production, Processing, and Consumptionp. 72
Consequences of Antimicrobial Use in Agriculturep. 74
Public Health Effectsp. 76
Major Overarching Themes of Working Group Discussionsp. 80
Referencesp. 81
Reflecting on the Path Forwardp. 83
Are Externalities the Best Way to Frame the Problem?p. 83
Trade-Offs Associated with Different Scales of Animal Productionp. 85
Uncertainty About the Magnitude of Some Effectsp. 86
Opportunities for More Data and Researchp. 87
The Daunting Challenge of Measuring "the" Cost of Foodp. 88
Wrap-Upp. 89
Referencesp. 90
Appendixes
Workshop Agendap. 91
Speaker Biographical Sketchesp. 95
Workshop Attendeesp. 101
Abbreviations and Acronymsp. 105
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

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