Introduction | |
Statistics and the Scientific Method | |
Introduction | |
Why Study Statistics? Some Current Applications of Statistics | |
A Note to the Student | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
Collecting Data | |
Using Surveys and Scientific Studies to Collect Data | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Observational Studies | |
Sampling Designs for Surveys | |
Experimental Studies | |
Designs for Experimental Studies | |
Research Study: Exit Polls versus Election Results | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
Summarizing Data | |
Data Description | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Calculators, Computers, and Software Systems | |
Describing Data on a Single Variable: Graphical Methods | |
Describing Data on a Single Variable: Measures of Central Tendency | |
Describing Data on a Single Variable: Measures of Variability | |
The Boxplot | |
Summarizing Data from More Than One Variable: Graphs and Correlation | |
Research Study: Controlling for Student Background in the Assessment of Teaching | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Probability And Probability Distributions | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Finding the Probability of an Event | |
Basic Event Relations and Probability Laws | |
Conditional Probability and Independence | |
Bayes' Formula | |
Variables: Discrete and Continuous | |
Probability Distributions for Discrete Random Variables | |
Two Discrete Random Variables: The Binomial and the Poisson | |
Probability Distributions for Continuous Random Variables | |
A Continuous Probability Distribution: The Normal Distribution | |
Random Sampling | |
Sampling Distributions | |
Normal Approximation to the Binomial | |
Evaluating Whether or Not a Population Distribution Is Normal | |
Research Study: Inferences about Performance Enhancing Drugs among Athletes | |
Minitab Instructions | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Analyzing Data, Interpreting the Analyses, and Communicating Results | |
Inferences about Population Central Values | |
Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |
Estimation of ? | |
Choosing the Sample Size for Estimating ? | |
A Statistical Test for ? | |
Choosing the Sample Size for ? | |
The Level of Significance of a Statistical Test | |
Inferences about ? for a Normal Population, s Unknown | |
Inferences about ? when Population in Nonnormal and n is small: Bootstrap Methods | |
Inferences about the Median | |
Research Study: Percent Calories from Fat | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Inferences Comparing Two Population Central Values | |
Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |
Inferences about ?1 - ?2: Independent Samples | |
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test | |
Inferences about ?1 - ?2: Paired Data | |
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test | |
Choosing Sample Sizes for Inferences about ?1 - ?2 | |
Research Study: Effects of Oil Spill on Plant Growth | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
Inferences about Population Variances | |
Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |
Estimation and Tests for a Population Variance | |
Estimation and Tests for Comparing Two Population Variances | |
Tests for Comparing t > 2 Population Variances | |
Research Study: Evaluation of Methods for Detecting E. coli | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Inferences About More Than Two Population Central Values Introduction and Abstract of a Research Study | |
A Statistical Test About More Than Two Population Means: An Analysis of Variance | |
The Model for Observations in a Completely Randomized Design | |
Checking on the AOV Conditions | |
An Alternative Analysis: Transformations of the Data | |
A Nonparametric Alternative: The Kruskal-Wallis Test | |
Research Study: Effect on Timing on the Treatment of Port-Wine Stains with Lasers | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Multiple Comparisons | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Linear Contrasts | |
Which Error Rate Is Controlled? Fisher's Least Significant Difference | |
Tukey's W Procedure | |
Student-Neuman-Keuls Procedure | |
Dunnett's Procedure: Comparison of Treatments to a Control | |
Scheff?'s S Method | |
A Nonparametric Multiple-Comparison Procedure | |
Research Study: Are Interviewers' Decisions Affected by Different Handicap Types? Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Categorical Data | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Inferences about a Population Proportion p | |
Inferences about the Difference between Two Population Proportions, p1 - p2 | |
Inferences about Several Proportions: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test | |
Tests for Independence and Homogeneity | |
Measuring Strength of Relaxation | |
Odds and Odd Ratios | |
Combining Sets of 2 X 2 Contingency Tables (optional) | |
Research Study: Does Gender Bias Exist in the Selection of Students for Vocational Education? Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Analyzing Data: Regression Methods and Model Building | |
Linear Regression and Correlation | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Estimating Model Parameters | |
Inferences about Regression Parameters | |
Predicting New y Values Using Regression | |
Examining Lack of Fit in Linear Regression | |
The Inverse Regression Problem (Calibration) | |
Correlation | |
Research Study: Two Methods for Detecting E. coli | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Multiple Regression and the General Linear Model | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
The General Linear Model | |
Estimating Multiple Regression Coefficients | |
Inferences in Multiple Regression | |
Testing a Subset of Regression Coefficients | |
Forecasting Using Multiple Regression | |
Comparing the Slopes of Several Regression Lines | |
Logistic Regression | |
Some Multiple Regression Theory (Optional) | |
Research Study: Designing an Electric Drill | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Further Regression Topics | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Selecting the Variables (Step 1) | |
Formulating the Model (Step 2) | |
Checking Model Assumptions (Step 3) | |
Research Study: Construction Costs for Nuclear Power Plants | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Design of Experiments and Analysis of Variance | |
Analysis of Variance for Completely Randomized Designs | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Completely Randomized Design with Single Factor | |
Factorial Treatment Structure | |
Factorial Treatment Structures with an Unequal Number of Replications | |
Estimation of Treatment Differences and Comparisons of Treatment Means | |
Determining the Number of Replications | |
Research Study: Development of a Low-Fat Processed Meat | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Analysis of Variance for Blocked Designs | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Randomized Complete Block Design | |
Latin Square Design | |
Factorial Treatment Structure in a Randomized Complete Block Design | |
A Nonparametric Alternative--Friedman's Test | |
Research Study: Control of Leatherjackets | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Analysis of Covariance | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
A Completely Randomized Design with One Covariate | |
The Extrapolation Problem | |
Multiple Covariates and More Complicated Designs | |
Research Study: Evaluations of Cool-Season Grasses for Putting Greens | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
Analysis of Variance for Some Fixed-, Random-, and Mixed-Effects Models | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
A One-Factor Experiment with Random Treatment Effects | |
Extensions of Random-Effects Models | |
Mixed-Effects Models | |
Rules for Obtaining Expecting Mean Squares | |
Nested Factors | |
Research Study: Factors Affecting Pressure Drops Across Expansion Joints | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
Split-Plot, Repeated Measures, and Crossover Designs | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
Split-Plot Designs | |
Single-Factor Experiments with Repeated Measures on One of the Factors | |
Two-Factor Experiments with Repeated Measures on One of the Factors | |
Crossover Design | |
Research Study: Effects of Oil Spill on Plant Growth | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
Analysis of Variance for Some Unbalanced Designs | |
Introduction and Abstract of Research Study | |
A Randomized Block Design with One or More Missing Observations | |
A Latin Square Design with Missing Data | |
Balanced Incomplete Block (BIB) Designs | |
Research Study: Evaluation of the Consistency of Property Assessment | |
Summary and Key Formulas | |
Exercises | |
Communicating and Documenting the Results of Analyses | |
Communicating and Documenting the Results of a Study or Experiment | |
Introduction | |
The Difficulty of Good Communication | |
Communication Hurdles: Graphical Distortions | |
Communication Hurdles: Biased Samples | |
Communication Hurdles: Sample Size | |
The Statistical Report | |
Documentation and Storage of Results | |
Summary | |
Exercises | |
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